Celery mosaic virus
J. F. Shepard
Department of Botany & Microbiology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59715, USA
R. G. Grogan
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Described and named western celery mosaic virus by Severin & Freitag, 1938
- Selected synonyms
- Apium virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 17: 52)
- Marmor umbelliferarum (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Western celery mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 18: 369)
- A virus with flexuous filamentous particles about 780 nm in length;
sap-transmissible to a narrow range of hosts, and transmitted by several species
Causes a mosaic disease of celery. In Britain it has also been associated with a
yellowing and stunting disease of coriander (Tomlinson, 1969
) and a golden-yellow
chlorosis and necrotic spotting of parsley (Frowd & Tomlinson, 1970
Celery mosaic virus has been reported from several western states in USA, and
also from Florida (Purcifull & Shepard, 1967
). Viruses with similar properties
have been reported from Germany (Brandes & Luisoni, 1966
) and France (Marchoux
et al., 1969
) and isolates serologically identical to those from USA have
been obtained from celery, coriander and parsley in Britain (Walkey, Tomlinson
& Frowd, 1970
Host Range and Symptomatology
Seems to infect only certain members of the family Umbelliferae (Severin &
; Tomlinson & Carter, 1970
- Diagnostic species
- Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery). Green to light green mottling,
and malformation of the leaflets. In chronic stages of disease, leaflets become
narrowed, cupped and twisted (Fig.1). Early infection results in pronounced
overall stunting and a divergence from the normal upright growth of the petioles
(Severin & Freitag, 1938).
- Conium maculatum (poison hemlock). Systemic mottle and leaf distortion
(Walkey, 1970). Immune to some strains (Sutabutra, 1968).
- Pastinaca sativa (parsnip). Immune to common strain but susceptible to
crinkle leaf strain (Freitag & Severin, 1945).
- Daucus carota var. sativa (carrot). Chlorotic spotting on young
leaves of chronically infected plants. Two cultivars, Western Red and Early Nantes,
were not infected by mechanical inoculation with British isolates (Walkey et
- Propagation species
- A. graveolens cv. Utah 10B is useful for maintaining the virus and as a
source of virus for purification.
- Assay species
- No local lesion host known. Celery has been used as a systemic assay host.
Few strains have been distinguished. A crinkle-leaf strain (Freitag &
) was differentiated on the basis of symptomatology and host range.
Strains that are related but serologically distinguishable have been isolated from
parsley and poison hemlock in California, USA (Sutabutra, 1968
). A virus with long
flexuous particles isolated from carrot in Japan was said to be celery mosaic virus,
but serological tests were not made and its host range included Nicotiana
clevelandii, Chenopodium amaranticolor
and C. quinoa
in addition to
umbelliferous species (Iwaki & Komuro, 1970
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted in a non-persistent manner by several aphid spp. Myzus persicae
is an efficient experimental vector if starved for 2-6 hr before the acquisition
feed. The root-feeding aphids, Aphis middletonii
and A. ferruginea-striata
also readily transmit; other vector species are A. apigraveolens, A. apii,
A. gossypii, A. rumicis, Cavariella capreae, Myzus circumflexus, M. convolvuli
and Rhopalosiphum melliferum
(Severin & Freitag, 1938
and C. pastinacae
(Tomlinson & Carter, 1970
Transmission through Seed
Transmission by Dodder
Strongly immunogenic. Useful antisera were produced in rabbits by intramuscular
injections of virus emulsified with Freunds incomplete adjuvant. In tube tests
with purified virus, antisera form flocculent precipitates; in double-diffusion
tests in agar gel using virus degraded by treatment with detergent, a single
straight band of precipitate forms (Shepard & Grogan, 1967b
Morphologically similar to members of the potato virus Y group
& Wetter, 1959
) but serological relationship to recognised members of this
group has not been demonstrated. No cross-protection studies have been reported.
Stability in Sap
Inactivated in vitro
after 6 days at room temperature. Dilution
end-points range from 10-2
and infectivity is
lost after heating at 55-60°C for 10 min.
A procedure for virus concentration and partial purification from celery
(Shepard & Grogan, 1967a
) involves extraction in 0.5 M borate
buffer pH 8.7 and clarification with chloroform, followed by differential and
rate zonal density gradient centrifugation.
Properties of Particles
Virus particles in leaf dip preparations are flexuous filaments with a
normal length of 784 nm (Fig.2
). Particles negatively stained with
phosphotungstate show hollow cores.
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Pinwheel and tubular inclusions (Fig.3
) are present in infected cells
(Purcifull & Shepard, 1967
In California, USA, the disease in celery has been controlled successfully
by the enforcement of a celery-free period which eliminates the principal
natural source of virus inoculum (Milbrath, 1948
). In Britain, the virus has
been isolated from naturally infected wild hemlock and possibly occurs in
other weed hosts (Walkey, 1970
). Thus a celery-free period may not prove
effective for control there.
- Brandes & Luisoni, Phytopath. Z. 57: 277, 1966.
- Brandes & Wetter, Virology 8: 99, 1959.
- Freitag & Severin, Hilgardia 16: 361, 1945.
- Frowd & Tomlinson, Rep. natn. Veg. Res. Stn for 1969: 108, 1970.
- Iwaki & Komuro, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 36: 36, 1970.
- Marchoux, Navatel, Rougier & Duteil, Annls Phytopath. 1: 227, 1969.
- Milbrath, Bull. Calif. Dep. Agric. 37: 3, 1948.
- Purcifull & Shepard, Pl. Dis. Reptr 51: 502, 1967.
- Severin & Freitag, Hilgardia 11: 493, 1938.
- Shepard & Grogan, Phytopathology 57: 1104, 1967a.
- Shepard & Grogan, Phytopathology 57: 1136, 1967b.
- Sutabutra, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Calif., Davis, 1968.
- Tomlinson, Rep. natn. Veg. Res. Stn for 1968: 88, 1969.
- Tomlinson & Carter, Rep. natn. Veg. Res. Stn for 1969: 108, 1970.
- Walkey, Rep. natn. Veg. Res. Stn for 1969: 110, 1970.
- Walkey, Tomlinson & Frowd, Pl. Dis. Reptr 54: 370, 1970.
Systemically infected (left) and healthy (right) leaves
Shadowed virus particles (normal length 784 nm) from a purified
preparation. Bar represents 1 µm.
Pinwheel and tubular inclusions in the cytoplasm of infected celery
leaf cells. (Photograph: courtesy of D. E. Purcifull, Univ.
Fla, Gainesville, USA.)