Bean common mosaic virus
Institute of Phytopathological Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Stewart & Reddick (1917) and
- Bean mosaic virus (Stewart & Reddick, 1917)
- Bean virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 13: 488)
- Phaseolus virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 17: 52)
A virus with flexuous filamentous particles c. 750 nm long,
transmitted readily by inoculation
of sap, by several aphid species in the non-persistent manner, through a high
proportion of seed, and
through pollen. In nature it is mainly restricted to Phaseolus species and
is probably common
wherever these crops are grown.
Causes common mosaic (usually associated with leaf malformation and rolling)
(characterized by vascular necrosis and plant death) in Phaseolus
the nature and severity
of symptoms greatly depending on cultivar, time of infection and environmental conditions.
) is the common natural host, but runner bean
) is also
Host Range and Symptomatology
Readily transmissible by inoculation of sap to many French bean cultivars.
A German isolate infected
43 leguminous species and produced local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa
). Two typical
strains caused local infection of C. quinoa
and Gomphrena globosa
and systemic infection
of Nicotiana clevelandii
- Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean). Bean cultivars may be tolerant, sensitive or
but the kind of reaction depends greatly on the virus strain. Tolerant cultivars
may show only
slight narrowing of systemically infected leaves. Sensitive cultivars may show a
mosaic in lower leaves, a rolling or curling mosaic with dark green areas along the main
veins in the
and mottled or malformed pods. Severe stunting and black-root symptoms occur
with typical strains at temperatures above 30°C
(Grogan & Walker, 1948a)
and with virulent
strains at 20°C and above
the vascular necrosis often
extends into surrounding tissues, for example in stems and pods
(Fig.2) or in leaves around the sites
Hypersensitive cultivars react with necrotic local lesions at
and with black-root symptoms at high temperature; this type of
reaction gives field resistance, is genetically dominant and is derived from the
cultivar Corbett Refugee.
- Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean). Slightly sensitive cultivars are suitable for
virus. It can also be maintained in seed from infected plants. Field-infected plants are
sources because they contain little virus
in glasshouse-grown plants the inoculated
leaves contain more virus than do systemically infected leaves
- Phaseolus vulgaris. Sensitive cultivars usually develop a characteristic systemic
Some cultivars develop necrotic local lesions with certain strains of the virus
(Zaumeyer & Goth, 1963).
Leaves of hypersensitive cultivars (e.g. Topcrop) detached after inoculation
and incubated on moist filter paper in closed Petri dishes under artificial light at
develop necrotic local lesions after 2-3 days
but this test is not always
reliable, and depends on leaf age and external conditions.
- Phaseolus lathyroides gives necrotic local lesions
and Chenopodium quinoa
may give diffuse chlorotic local lesions 2-3 mm in diameter.
- For aphid transmission tests Phaseolus vulgaris has been used.
Various strains have been described, especially in connection with research on
breeding for resistance
they differ in the symptoms they induce and in the range of
cultivars they infect.
Some virus isolates described as separate entities are perhaps strains of bean common
(see Relationships). Well known or well characterized strains include the following:
Type strain of
Reddick & Stewart (1918).
The most prevalent strain in USA.
New York 15 or Burkholder strain of
Richards & Burkholder (1943).
Robust, Michelite and Great Northern U.I. Nr. 15, which are resistant to the type strain.
Florida strain of
Zaumeyer & Goth (1964).
More virulent than the type and New York
strains and has a slightly different host range. It does not give the
hypersensitive reaction at
Other strains reported from North America include the B strain of
Dean & Wilson (1959)
Mexican strain of
strains from Europe include the Voldagsen and Marienau strains of
and Westlandia strains of
van der Want (1954)
and the Michelite, Imuna and Great Northern strains of
Transmission by Vectors
Several aphid species have been reported to transmit the virus in the non-persistent manner
(Kennedy, Day & Eastop, 1962
notably Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis fabae
and Myzus persicae.
Acquisition and inoculation thresholds are less than 1 min and
there is no latent period
(van der Want, 1954
Zettler & Wilkinson, 1966
virus more readily from chlorotic leaf areas than from dark green areas
Transmission through Seed
Rather common and probably the most important source of initial crop infection.
Up to 83%
(Reddick & Stewart, 1919
of the seeds of diseased plants may
be infected. Plants infected after flowering do not give infected seed
and the distribution of infected seeds in pods is erratic
(EI-Attar, Sabet & Nour-Eldin, 1964
Virus is found in the embryo and cotyledons but seldom in the seed-coat
seeds may be a good source of inoculum
Active virus has been recovered from seed
stored for 30 years
(Pierce & Hungerford, 1929
Virus enters the seed, and perhaps also the
plant pollinated, from infected pollen
Transmission by Dodder
It is hard to obtain sufficiently pure and concentrated virus suspensions
for serological tests,
and in field-infected plants virus concentration may be too low to detect
Highest reported antiserum titre is 1/2048
Zaumeyer & Goth, 1964
Precipitin-tube and micro-precipitin tests are most commonly used because intact
particles do not
diffuse in agar gel.
Jermoljev & Chod (1966)
described a serological method for detecting the
virus in germinated seeds.
RelationshipsZaumeyer & Goth (1964)
found that antiserum to the type strain had the same titre to both the
type strain and the Florida strain.
found complete cross-protection between two German
found that cross-protection between the Florida, New York 15 and
Mexican strains was usually only partial, although the Florida strain did protect
Bountiful bean from
infection with the Mexican strain.
In particle morphology, mode of transmission and other biological and
biophysical properties, bean
common mosaic virus resembles members of the
potato virus Y
group of viruses and is serologically
related to several of them. Of these, other seed-borne viruses of legumes, such as
cowpea aphid-borne mosaic
pea leafroll mosaic (pea seed-borne mosaic)
viruses, seem to be close
Bean yellow mosaic
(Beemster & van der Want, 1951;
pea necrosis and
wisteria vein mosaic viruses
have wider host ranges and may be less
closely related. Partial or complete cross-protection in plants has sometimes been
found between bean
common mosaic and bean yellow mosaic viruses
(Grogan & Walker, 1948b;
Quantz, 1961) and
between each of these viruses and soybean mosaic virus
Bean common mosaic virus may also be closely related to the following incompletely
(Phaseolus radiatus var. aurea) mosaic
asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) mosaic virus
and mung bean
(Phaseolus lunatus) mosaic virus
(Kaiser et al., 1968).
bean western mosaic virus,
described as a separate virus because of its wide host range
(Skotland & Burke, 1961),
is also now considered a strain of bean common mosaic virus
like an isolate from gladiolus described by
it might well be intermediate between bean
common mosaic and bean yellow mosaic viruses.
Stability in Sap
The thermal inactivation point (10 min) is usually around 60°C but,
depending on virus source,
virus strain and environmental conditions, may range between 50 and 65°C;
the dilution end-point
is usually between l0-3
, and sap retains infectivity at room
temperature for 1-4 days.
In sap, much of the virus sediments with the chloroplasts on low speed centrifugation
(van der Want, 1954
Partially pure preparations suitable for serological tests have been obtained by one
cycle of differential centrifugation followed by low speed centrifugation,
clarification with ether,
another low speed centrifugation and dialysis against 0.85% NaCl
also reported that chloroform-butanol clarification was useful.
Properties of Particles
Particles are flexuous filaments
750 nm long and c.
15 nm wide
(Brandes & Quantz, 1955
Zaumeyer & Goth (1964)
reported that the particles of the
Florida strain were 738 nm long.
Relations with Cells and TissuesZettler (1969)
found cytoplasmic inclusions in epidermal strips, especially from the chlorotic
areas of bean leaves infected with a New York isolate, after staining with calcomine
luxol brilliant green.
Bean common mosaic virus can be confused with
bean yellow mosaic virus
but has a more limited
host range. It usually gives distinctive symptoms in Phaseolus
but, unlike bean yellow
mosaic virus, produces no obvious local reaction in Chenopodium amaranticolor
it causes vein-banding and leaf-rolling somewhat similar to
that induced by
bean southern mosaic virus,
which is also seed-borne. However, the latter virus
has a high thermal inactivation point (95°C), has spherical particles easily seen in the
electron microscope after negative staining, is not transmitted by aphids, and induces systemic
symptoms in bean varieties hypersensitive to bean common mosaic virus.
- Ainsworth, Ann. appl. Biol. 27: 218, 1940.
- Beemster & van der Want, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 17: 15, 1951.
- Bercks, Phytopath. Z. 35: 105, 1959.
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Photographs courtesy of Institute of Phytopathological Research, Wageningen.
Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Bataaf, one month after inoculation with a common
P. vulgaris cv. Metis x Cordon, pods with internal necrosis after systemic
infection by the Michelite strain.
Virus particles from sap in sodium phosphotungstate. Bar represents 200 nm.
Inoculated half-leaves of P. vulgaris (above) cv. Cordon
local lesions (hypersensitivity), (below) cv. Processor, showing veinal necrosis.
P. vulgaris cv. Topcrop with black-root disease
after inoculation with the
virulent Imuna strain and incubation at about 22-25°C.