Pea streak virus
Institute of Phytopathological Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
- Described by Zaumeyer (1938), Hagedorn & Walker (1949) and Wetter, Quantz
& Brandes (1962).
- Marmor iners (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Pea streak virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 17: 220)
- Sweet clover virus (Steinkleevirus) (Rev. appl. Mycol. 36: 532)
- Wisconsin pea streak virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 29: 132)
- An RNA-containing virus with straight to slightly curved filamentous particles
c. 620 x 12 nm. Easily sap-transmitted to many species in the Papilionaceae
and to some in other families, often causing latent infection. Certain isolates
are readily aphid-transmitted, others poorly or not at all.
Causes severe necrotic streaking of pea stems and petioles often with veinal
necrosis; other symptoms are flaccidity of leaves, malformation and chlorosis of
apical foliage, wilting of plant tips and plant death (Fig.1
). Pods may be
spotted, pitted and distorted; those forming when infection takes place become
purple and do not develop seeds. In pea no immunity seems to exist (Hagedorn,
). In Minnesota and Wisconsin (Hanson & Hagedorn, 1961
; Stuteville &
) and in Canada (Pratt, 1968
) clovers (especially red clover)
are commonly infected, often without symptoms. In red clover no immunity was found
(Stuteville & Hanson, 1964b
). Natural infection of white sweet clover
(Steinkleevirus) was reported only once (Quantz & Brandes, 1957
Prevalent in pea growing areas in USA (Wisconsin, Idaho, Washington). Occurs
in clovers in Canada and USA; reported once in sweet clover in West Germany.
Host Range and Symptomatology
Natural hosts are peas and clovers. Experimental hosts belong mainly to the
Papilionaceae (legumes) and several produce no symptoms (Wetter et al.,
). Phaseolus vulgaris
is not susceptible to most isolates but was
infected by the New Zealand pea streak virus (Chamberlain, 1939
). This isolate
and the German Steinkleevirus caused local infection in Cucumis sativus.
The Steinkleevirus induced local infection in Chenopodium quinoa.
Wisconsin strain was reported to infect tomato (Kim & Hagedorn, 1959
- Diagnostic species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor. With the Wisconsin pea streak virus many necrotic
local lesions (Fig.2) develop after 4 days at 28°C or 7 days at 16°C,
each surrounded by a chlorotic halo which becomes broader with increasing
temperature. Lesions are more numerous at 16°C than at 28°C (Rosenkranz
& Hagedorn, 1964).
- Gomphrena globosa. White sunken local lesions 0.5-1 mm in diameter
develop 2-3 days after inoculation, later surrounded by chlorotic reddening
borders; such lesions can be easily distinguished from those induced by alfalfa
mosaic or red clover vein mosaic viruses, which develop 6 days later (Stuteville
& Hanson, 1965b).
- Pisum sativum (pea). Many varieties react with typical necrotic
streaking of stems and petioles, and malformation and chlorosis of top leaves.
In the greenhouse, symptoms are less severe and mainly consist of progressive
wilting; stem streaking is more typical at lower temperatures (16°C)
(Hagedorn & Walker, 1949).
- Vicia faba (broad bean). Necrotic local lesions develop in 6-8 days,
followed by necrotic streaks on stems, and rosetting and malformation of plant
tips; often plants die back gradually from the growing point. In the cultivar
Compacta the Wisconsin strain induces numerous chlorotic lesions after 4 days,
later developing into necrotic rings with a dry centre (Fig.3). Lesions induced
by the RK31 and P42 strains of red clover vein mosaic virus appear at least 5
days later and are less reliable (Bos et al., 1972).
- Propagation species
- Pisum sativum. With the Wisconsin strain, concentration was highest
at 24°C in systemically infected leaves 20-35 days after the plants were
inoculated. Virus concentration was also high in stems and roots (Rosenkranz
& Hagedorn, 1967).
- Assay species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Vicia faba are
useful local lesion hosts. Standardized conditions for quantitative assay of
the Wisconsin strain in C. amaranticolor were given by Rosenkranz &
The variants described differ little in host range and symptomatology. The
original isolates of the incompletely described pea streak virus (Zaumeyer,
) and New Zealand pea streak virus (Chamberlain, 1939
), are no longer
available for comparison.
Wisconsin strain of Hagedorn & Walker (1949) is mainly
distinguished by its long survival in vitro (50-60 days) and its poor
transmission by Acyrthosiphon pisum.
Idaho strain of Kim & Hagedorn (1959) resembles the Wisconsin
strain in many respects and both viruses react strongly with each others
antisera, but its longevity in vitro is only 4-7 days and it is readily
transmitted by A. pisum. Perhaps identical to the Idaho strain of
Zaumeyer & Patino (1959).
Sweet clover strain of Quantz & Brandes (1957) is serologically
and in many other properties indistinguishable from the Idaho strain, but has
occasionally been recovered from experimentally infected Phaseolus bean
(Wetter et al., 1962).
Transmission by VectorsThe Idaho strain was easily transmitted by the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon
pisum) after acquisition feeding periods varying from 15 min to 30 hr. Under
similar conditions the Wisconsin strain was not transmitted (Kim & Hagedorn,
1959). In a more extensive trial A. pisum transmitted the Wisconsin strain
to 0.32% and 3.27% of the plants after acquisition feeding times of 15 sec and
24 hr respectively (Skotland & Hagedorn, 1954). When allowed only single
probes, aphids transmitted the virus to at least 5 sequential test plants; after
feeding for 15 min on the first test plant 4% of the aphids still transmitted to
other test plants (Hampton & Sylvester, 1969).
Transmission through SeedNo reports; not seed-transmitted in red clover (Stuteville & Hanson,
Transmission by DodderNot reported.
SerologyThe virus is strongly immunogenic. Highest titres (1/16,384) were obtained
by injecting partially purified virus after removal of normal proteins with
healthy antiserum (Wetter et al., 1962). Tube precipitin tests have been
used most often but microprecipitin tests under paraffin oil are also satisfactory
(Bos, Maat & Markov, 1972).
RelationshipsSerologically the two American strains of the virus and the German sweet
clover strain are closely related. They differ considerably serologically and
in particle length from strains of red clover vein mosaic virus, including the
P42 strain of Zaumeyer, Goth & Ford (1964), which induces severe streak
symptoms in pea (Wetter et al., 1962; Bos et al., 1972). The
Minnesota (MS) pea streak virus, described by Kim & Hagedorn (1959) resembles
pea streak virus in various ways but did not react with antisera prepared against
the Wisconsin and Idaho strains, nor did these strains react with antiserum to
the Minnesota pea streak virus.
Bos et al. (1972) found that, in pea, the Wisconsin strain of pea
streak virus gave weak protection against normal (RK31) and pea streak (P42)
strains of the red clover vein mosaic virus. In host range, symptoms and
properties in expressed sap, the virus resembles the broad bean local-lesion
virus from red clover, incompletely characterized by Pierce (1935).
Stability in SapIn pea sap, the thermal inactivation point (10 min) is usually above
60°C and sometimes 78-80°C, dilution end-point is up to
10-6-10-7, and infectivity persists from 2-7 days,
but up to 50-60 days for the Wisconsin strain.
PurificationWetter (1960): Express sap from infected pea plants and add ascorbic acid
to 0.2% (w/v) and sodium sulphite to 0.2% (w/v). Filter and shake filtrate
with equal volume of ether.
Centrifuge and shake the clarified aqueous phase with an equal volume of carbon
Sediment and clarify by two cycles of high and low speed centrifugation,
resuspending the pellets
in 0.01 M phosphate buffer. Density gradient centrifugation can be used for
Bos et al. (1972): Homogenize 200 g of infected pea plants in 300-400
ml 0.18 M phosphate-citric acid buffer (pH 7, containing 0.1% thioglycollic
acid), 100 ml ether and 100 ml carbon tetrachloride. After one low speed
centrifugation, give two cycles of differential centrifugation and resuspend
in the above buffer. Purify further by sucrose density gradient centrifugation,
e.g. in a zonal rotor and concentrate by ultracentrifugation.
Properties of ParticlesSedimentation coefficient (s20) at infinite dilution: 160 S
(Bos et al., 1972), 136-137 S
(Rosenkranz & Hagedorn,
1967; not corrected for concentration and impurities).
A260/A280: 1.33-1.35 (calculated after Kim & Hagedorn, 1959).
Particle StructureParticles are straight or slightly curved filaments (Fig.4), with modal
lengths of c. 619 nm (Wetter et al., 1962) or 630 nm (Bos
et al., 1972) after negative staining, with tobacco mosaic virus as an
internal standard. For comparison the same authors found 654 and 670 nm,
respectively, for red clover vein mosaic virus.
Particle Composition15.5% of the particle weight is nitrogen and 0.53% is phosphorus. RNA
is 5.4% of particle weight (Rosenkranz & Hagedorn, 1967).
Relations with Cells and TissuesIn pea epidermal cells extensive parts of the cytoplasm are often stainable
with phloxine and sometimes contain well-defined granular and vacuolated
inclusion bodies (Fig.5). Negatively stained pea leaf sap preparations
contain large amounts of non-aggregated particles often attached to cell
organelles (Fig.4). In ultrathin sections, particles occur separately, or more
frequently in bundles attached to membranes, e.g. around vacuoles (Fig.6)
(Bos & Rubio-Huertos, 1972).
NotesThe virus closely resembles red clover vein mosaic virus in particle
morphology, host range and symptoms in most hosts (but see Diagnostic Hosts).
Serologically, however, the two viruses are only distantly related and they
can be easily distinguished by their differing particle lengths even in mixed
preparations (Wetter et al., 1962; Bos et al., 1972). Certain
strains of red clover vein mosaic virus cause more severe necrotic streaking
than pea streak virus itself, e.g. strain P42 of Zaumeyer et al.
Many other viruses are known to cause necrotic streak diseases in pea,
viz.: alfalfa mosaic, bean yellow mosaic, beet mosaic, broad bean wilt,
cucumber mosaic, lettuce mosaic, pea early-browning, pea necrosis, tobacco
ringspot, tobacco streak, tomato spotted wilt and white clover mosaic viruses.
They are difficult to distinguish from each other symptomatologically, but can
usually be easily differentiated from true pea streak virus by their ability to
infect some or several non-legumes and by their different particle morphology.
- Bos, Maat & Markov, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 125, 1972.
- Bos & Rubio-Huertos, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 247, 1972.
- Chamberlain, N. Z. Jl Sci. Technol. 20: 365A, 1939.
- Hagedorn, Pl. Dis. Reptr 52: 160, 1968.
- Hagedorn & Walker, Phytopathology 39: 837, 1949.
- Hagedorn & Walker, Res. Bull. agric. Exp. Stn Univ. Wis. 185: 32 pp., 1954.
- Hampton & Sylvester, Phytopathology 59: 1663, 1969.
- Hanson & Hagedorn, Agron. J. 53: 63, 1961.
- Kim & Hagedorn, Phytopathology 49: 656, 1959.
- Pierce, J. agric. Res. 51: 1017, 1935.
- Pratt, Can. Pl. Dis. Surv. 48: 87, 1968.
- Quantz & Brandes, NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst., Stuttg. 9: 6, 1957.
- Rosenkranz & Hagedorn, Phytopathology 54: 807, 1964.
- Rosenkranz & Hagedorn, Phytopathology 57: 551, 1967.
- Skotland & Hagedorn, Phytopathology 44: 569, 1954.
- Stuteville & Hanson, Pl. Dis. Reptr 48: 270, 1964a.
- Stuteville & Hanson, Crop Sci. 4: 631, 1964b.
- Stuteville & Hanson, Crop Sci. 5: 59, 1965a.
- Stuteville & Hanson, Phytopathology 55: 336, 1965b.
- Wetter, Arch. Mikrobiol. 37: 278, 1960.
- Wetter, Quantz & Brandes, Phytopath. Z. 44: 151, 1962.
- Zaumeyer, J. agric. Res. 56: 747, 1938.
- Zaumeyer, Goth & Ford, Pl. Dis. Reptr 48: 494, 1964.
- Zaumeyer & Patino, Pl. Dis. Reptr 43: 698, 1959.
Pea plant with symptoms of Wisconsin pea streak as seen in the field.
(After Hagedorn & Walker, 1954.)
Local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor 7 days after
inoculation. (After Rosenkranz & Hagerdorn, 1964.)
Local lesions in Vicia faba 'Compacta'. (After Bos
et al., 1972.)
Virus particles (left) after negative staining and
(right) after shadow casting; bars represent 500 nm. (After
Bos & Rubio-Huertos.)
Inclusions (I) in pea leaf epidermis; N= nucleus. Bar represents
10 µm. (After Bos & Rubio-Huertos.)
Virus aggregates in ultrathin section of pea leaf
tissue; bar represents 500 nm. (After Bos & Rubio-Huertos, 1972.)