Hippeastrum mosaic virus
A. A. Brunt
Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, Littlehampton, Sussex, England
- Disease described by Kunkel (1922); virus partially characterized by Brants
& Van den Heuvel (1965) and Brunt (1973).
- Selected synonym
- Amaryllis mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 30: 403).
- A virus with flexuous filamentous particles c. 750 x 12 nm transmitted
by aphids after brief acquisition and inoculation feeds. Only known to occur
naturally in members of the Amaryllidaceae, but transmissible by mechanical
inoculation of sap to a few species in three other families. World-wide distribution
Causes mosaic diseases in Hippeastrum equestre
and cultivated species
and hybrids of Hippeastrum
. It occurs also in Crinum, Hymenocallis,
), and possibly several
related genera (Hannibal, 1942
Probably world-wide; reported from Asia (Bremer, 1926
; Iwaki, 1967
& Procenko, 1964
), Africa (P. J. Klesser, personal communication), Europe
(Brants & Van den Heuvel, 1965
) and America (Kunkel, 1922
; Holmes, 1928
Host Range and Symptomatology
Only known to occur naturally in members of the Amaryllidaceae, but will also
infect the inoculated leaves only of a few species in Amaranthaceae,
Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae.
- Diagnostic species
- Hippeastrum hybridum. Irregular light and dark green mosaic patterns
on leaves and flower stalks, especially conspicuous in intolerant cultivars
(Fig.1). Flowers are usually symptomless.
- Chenopodium murale. Fawn necrotic local lesions c. 2 mm in
diameter after 3 weeks (Fig.5). Not systemic.
- Chenopodium quinoa. Chlorotic or necrotic circular local lesions
(Fig.2) c. 2 mm in diameter after 2-3 weeks (Brunt, 1973). Not systemic.
- Gomphrena globosa. Few red circular necrotic local lesions (Fig.4)
2-4 mm in diameter, sometimes after c. 10 days (Brants & Van den
Heuvel, 1965) but often after 3-4 weeks. Not systemic. G. globosa is much
less susceptible than other local lesion hosts, and is a very poor source of
- Hyoscyamus niger. Numerous circular fawn or chlorotic local lesions
(Fig.3) c. 2 mm after 7 days (De Leeuw, 1972b). Not systemic.
- Nicotiana clevelandii. Numerous white etched rings 1-2 mm in diameter
after 3-4 weeks (Fig.6), later becoming diffuse and faintly chlorotic (Brunt,
1973). Not systemic.
- Tetragonia expansa. Circular chlorotic local lesions 1-2 mm in diameter
after c. 3 weeks. Not systemic.
- Propagation species
- Hippeastrum hybridum is a suitable host for maintaining the virus, but
inoculated leaves of Nicotiana clevelandii are a better source of virus for
- Assay species
- Chenopodium quinoa and Hyoscyamus niger are good hosts for local
lesion assays, and Hippeastrum hybridum seedlings for aphid transmission
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted readily after brief (2-10 min) acquisition and inoculation feeds
by Aphis gossypii
and Myzus persicae,
but not Aphis craccivora
or Macrosiphoniella sanborni
). No latent period.
Transmission through Seed
Not seed-borne in Hippeastrum hybridum
Transmission by Dodder
The virus is a good immunogen; antisera with titres of 1/2000 have been
produced in rabbits after one intravenous injection of c
. 0.2 mg virus
followed 11 and 19 days later by intramuscular injections of similar amounts of
virus emulsified with Freunds complete adjuvant. Antibodies and antigen react
in tube precipitin tests to produce flagellar precipitates.
The virus has properties typical of members of the
potato virus Y (potyvirus)
, but is serologically unrelated to carnation vein mottle
, turnip mosaic
tobacco severe etch
, iris mild mosaic
, iris severe mosaic
, pepper veinal mottle
clover yellow vein
, tobacco veinal necrosis
, bean yellow mosaic
, lettuce mosaic
and narcissus yellow stripe
viruses (Brunt, 1973
Stability in Sap
In Hippeastrum hybridum
leaf extracts, infectivity is lost after
dilution to 10-2
, and after 10 min at 55-60°C,
1-4 days at 20°C or 16-32 days at 2°C (Brants & Van den Heuvel,
; Brunt, 1973
Infected Hippeastrum hybridum
leaves have a high virus content but
also contain mucilaginous substances that hinder purification; Nicotiana
is a better source of virus, yielding up to 10 mg/kg leaf
tissue by the following procedure (Brunt, unpublished). Leaves with numerous
local lesions 3-4 weeks after inoculation are extracted (1 g/4 ml) in 0.1 M
sodium citrate containing 0.05 M disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate and 0.2%
2-mercaptoethanol (pH 7.2), and the fluid subjected to one cycle of differential
centrifugation; high speed pellets are dispersed in 0.033 M phosphate buffer
(pH 7.6), stirred for c
. 30 min with 25% (v/v) carbon tetrachloride,
virus sedimented from the aqueous phase by centrifugation at 75,000
for 90 min, and then redispersed in 0.03 M phosphate buffer
(pH 7.6). Further purification is achieved by centrifuging for 75 min at
in 10-40% sucrose gradient columns; extracted zones
are dialysed for up to 48 hr against 0.03 M phosphate (pH 7.6) containing
0.05% (w/v) sodium chloride, virus sedimented by high speed centrifugation
and finally dispersed in 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.6).
Properties of Particles
Sedimentation coefficient (s
): 155 S. No
accessory particles are detected by analytical ultracentrifugation.
Ultraviolet absorption: max 258-260, min 242-246 nm. A260/A280 = 1.21.
A260/A244 = 1.24.
Particles are flexuous filaments (Fig.7
), previously reported to be 600-800
nm long (Herbas, 1964
; Iwaki, 1967
; Brants & Van den Heuvel, 1965
mostly measuring c
. 750 x 12 nm in neutral 2% phosphotungstate (Brunt,
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Ovoid or spherical intracellular inclusion bodies up to 20 µm in
diameter occur in infected plants (Kunkel, 1922
; Bremer, 1926
; Holmes, 1928
most cells in chlorotic areas of leaves contain a single inclusion (Fig.8
usually near or apposed to the nucleus, and chloroplasts that are smaller than
those in normal cells (Bremer, 1926
Infected cells also contain numerous pinwheel and bundle inclusions similar to
those induced by many other morphologically similar viruses.
NotesTomato spotted wilt
, cucumber mosaic
and tobacco mosaic
viruses also occur
naturally in Hippeastrum hybridum,
sometimes together with hippeastrum
mosaic virus (De Leeuw, 1972a
; Herbas, 1964
; Iwaki, 1967
; Kahn &
; Smith, 1935
), but they are easily distinguished from hippeastrum
mosaic virus in differential hosts and by differences in particle morphology.
Another virus with particles c
. 650 x 13 nm has been detected in
cultivated in Europe (Brants, Fokkema & De Bode,
) but this has yet to be identified or characterized. A virus tentatively
designated hippeastrum streak infects H. vittatum
in Papua and New
Guinea (Van Velsen, 1967
), but has been insufficiently characterized to permit
comparisons with viruses infecting Hippeastrum
Although hippeastrum mosaic virus is now widespread in Hippeastrum
hybridum, virus-free plants are readily obtainable; c. 6% of
bulblets developing on pieces of infected flower stem are virus-free (Holmes,
It is now generally accepted that the genus Amaryllis contains only the
single S. African species A. belladonna whilst Hippeastrum is
reserved for numerous species and hybrids originating in the USA (Moore,
1963). Before the nomenclature of the two genera had been resolved,
Amaryllis was sometimes used in America as a synonym for
Hippeastrum (Herbas, 1964; Johnson, 1951; Kahn & Scott, 1964);
amaryllis mosaic virus is thus an invalid synonym.
- Brants & Van den Heuvel, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 71: 145, 1965.
- Brants, Fokkema & De Bode, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 76: 171, 1970.
- Bremer, Meded. Proefstn Java-Suik Ind. 11: 337, 1926.
- Brunt, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1972: 103, 1973.
- De Leeuw, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 69, 1972a.
- De Leeuw, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 78: 107, 1972b.
- Hannibal, Herbertia, La Jolla 9: 149, 1942.
- Herbas, Turrialba 14: 140, 1964.
- Holmes, Bot. Gaz. 86: 50, 1928.
- Holmes, Phytopathology 55: 504, 1965.
- Iwaki, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 33: 237, 1967.
- Johnson, Phytopathology 41: 78, 1951.
- Kahn & Scott, Phytopathology 54: 360, 1964.
- Kunkel, Science, N.Y. 55: 73, 1922.
- Moore, Baileya 11: 15, 1963.
- Procenko & Procenko, Proc. 5th Conf. Czechosl. Pl. Virol. 1962: 241, 1964.
- Smith, Jl R. hort. Soc. 60: 304, 1935.
- Van Velsen, Papua New Guin. agric. J. 19: 13, 1967.
Systemic leaf chlorosis in naturally infected Hippeastrum
hybridum (Sutton's Special Hybrid).
Lesions in inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa.
Lesions in inoculated leaf of Hyoscyamus niger.
Lesions in inoculated leaf of Gomphrena globosa.
Lesions in inoculated leaf of Chenopodium murale.
Lesions in inoculated leaf of Nicotiana clevelandii.
Particles in sap from infected Tetragonia expansa mounted
in neutral 2% phosphotungstate. Bar represents 500 nm.
Intracellular inclusion bodies (1) in Hippeastrum hybridum
leaf epidermal cells (micrograph courtesy Dr D. H. Wieringa-Brants). N = nucleus.
Bar represents 50 µm.