Radish mosaic virus
R. N. Campbell
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
Tompkins (1939) and rediscovered by
- Marmor raphani (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Raphanusvirus maculans (Rev. appl. Mycol. 38: 677)
- Radish enation mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 47: 2309)
An isometric RNA virus c. 30 nm in diameter with multiple sedimenting
and electrophoretic components, transmissible by beetles and by inoculation of sap.
It occurs naturally only in cruciferous plants but can be inoculated to a few non-
crucifers. Widely distributed.
Causes mosaic of turnip and radish. Symptoms commonly include ringspots and
crinkling of leaves; radish plants may develop enations. In California
the virus has been isolated only occasionally;
in Yugoslavia it is the most common virus in turnip
(Stefanac & Mamula, 1972
Known from USA (California), Japan and Europe.
Host Range and Symptomatology
Infects most crucifers, causing mosaic, ringspots (chlorotic or necrotic),
veinal necrosis, leaf crinkling and, occasionally, systemic necrosis. Some hosts,
Tendergreen mustard, are heterozygous for susceptibility; others show
varietal differences in susceptibility, e.g.
Purple Top White Globe turnip
is resistant, Early White Flat Dutch and Shogoin turnips are susceptible.
Additional hosts in the Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Cucurbitaceae give local
lesion reactions but may remain symptomless in the summer in California.
- Brassica campestris Perviridis group (Tendergreen mustard). Susceptible
plants develop chlorotic or necrotic lesions
followed by systemic
mosaic with chlorotic ringspots.
- Brassica oleracea. Local and systemic chlorotic ring patterns
or symptomless infection, depending on the isolate.
- Raphanus sativus (radish) cvs. White Icicle, Chinese White Winter.
Systemic mottle usually with ringspots; enations develop later
- Chenopodium amaranticolor. Necrotic local lesions (not in summer in
California). Not systemic.
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) cv. Havana 425. No symptoms.
- N. tabacum cvs. Turkish and Samsun. Chlorotic local lesions or necrotic
- B. campestris Perviridis group, B. campestris Chinensis group
(Chinese mustard or Bock Toy), and B. campestris Rapifera group (turnip)
have been used to maintain cultures and as sources of virus for purification.
- C. amaranticolor is a satisfactory local lesion host but may not form
lesions during summer.
All isolates are similar in host range and reaction. The neo-type strain
found in California, USA, is deposited with the American Type
Culture Collection as PV-138.
Transmission by Vectors
Transmission has been achieved with the beetles Phyllotreta
and Diabrotica undecimpunctata
(Campbell & Colt, 1967
Stefanac & Mamula, 1972
Virus-vector relations have not been studied; only adult vectors have been used.
Transmission through Seed
No seed transmission was obtained in radish
(Campbell & Colt, 1967
Transmission by Dodder
The virus is a good immunogen. Gel-diffusion tests with crude sap of
systemically infected crucifers give a good reaction with a single line of
precipitation. Immuno-electrophoresis gives two components (Campbell, unpublished,
Isolates from California and Japan were serologically identical
(Campbell & Tochihara, 1969
whereas the HZ strain from Yugoslavia was closely related
to but distinguishable from the Californian isolate
(Stefenac & Mamula, 1972
The Californian strain was distantly serologically related to
bean pod mottle
(all members of the cowpea mosaic virus
) but did not react with antisera to eleven other polyhedral
turnip yellow mosaic
Stability in Sap
Thermal inactivation point is between 65 and 70°C, longevity at room
temperature is from 2 to 3 weeks, dilution end-point is about 1/15,000. Similar
results were obtained when Tendergreen mustard, turnip, or radish were the source
Stefanac & Mamula, 1972
1. Campbell (1964)
Grind leaves at room temperature in 0.5 M
(pH 7.6) buffer,
squeeze through cheesecloth, add n
-butanol to 8% of total volume and stir
for 1-2 h. Clarify, then chill to precipitate phosphate. Concentrate virus from
supernatant fluid by 2 cycles of differential centrifugation. Yields up to 15
mg/100 g of leaves; virtually free of host material.
2. Stefanac & Mamula (1972)
used Steeres chloroform technique.
Properties of Particles
Purified virus preparations contain three centrifugal components
top (T), found in trace amounts, is probably free of RNA by analogy with
bean pod mottle
middle (M) and bottom (B) contain RNA.
Infectivity is greatest when M and B are mixed
also contain two electrophoretic components
fast (F) and slow (S),
which have distinct isoelectric points; each contains at least the M and B
centrifugal components (Campbell, unpublished).
Sedimentation coefficients (s20) in 0.05 M phosphate buffer
with 0.1 M NaCl at infinite dilution (svedbergs): about 57 (T), 97 (M) and 116
(B) (Campbell, unpublished;
Ratio of M:B (from schlieren patterns)
varies from 2:1 to 4:1.
Diffusion coefficient: approx. 1.30 x 10-7 cm2/sec.
Electrophoretic mobility: two components (F and S) detectable in cellulose
acetate electrophoresis, immuno-electrophoresis, and electrophoresis in 2.4%
polyacrylamide gels using 0.01 ionic strength phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) (Campbell,
Isoelectric points: pI = 4.3 (approx) (F); pI = 5.3 (approx) (S) by ampholine
Absorbance at 260 nm (1 mg/ml, 1 cm light path): 9 (M), 11 (B).
A260/A280: 1.65 (M), 1.78 (B).
Particles are isometric, about 30 nm in diameter
In negatively stained preparations some particles appear hollow
Particle CompositionNucleic acid:
M and B components contain RNA comprising about 26 and 35%
of the particle, respectively. RNA species extracted from non-fractionated
preparations have M. Wt about 1.3 and 2.2 x 106
The molar percentages are about G22; A29; C19; U30 for M, and G25; A30; C18; U27
for B (Campbell, unpublished).
Protein: No information.
Relations with Cells and Tissues
No tissue restriction known. Aggregates of virus occur in the cytoplasm and
in vacuoles, especially at the interface between them; often particles occur in
multiple rows within membrane-bounded tube-like structures that are regarded as
(Honda & Matsui, 1972
Hooper, Spink & Myers, 1972
Large, vesiculated inclusion bodies containing aggregates of virus particles are
described in turnip epidermal cells
(Stefanac & Ljubesic, 1971
turnip yellow mosaic
are all 30 nm diameter, isometric viruses isolated from Cruciferae. Host reaction
and host range cannot reliably distinguish among them; both radish mosaic and
turnip crinkle viruses infect hosts outside the Cruciferae. Serology is the
most rapid, reliable diagnostic procedure and can be employed with crude sap
expressed from infected leaves. Biophysical characteristics of radish mosaic
virus differ from those of the other three viruses. The unusual properties of
radish stunt virus
of Isiyama & Misawa (1943)
are thought to be caused
by a complex of radish mosaic and
Campbell & Tochihara, 1969
- Campbell, Phytopathology 54: 1418, 1964.
- Campbell & Colt, Phytopathology 57: 502, 1967.
- Campbell & Tochihara, Phytopathology 59: 1756, 1969.
- Honda & Matsui, Phytopathology 62: 448, 1972.
- Hooper, Spink & Myers, Virology 47: 833, 1972.
- Isiyama & Misawa, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 12: 116, 1943.
- Kodama, Kagaku to Seibutu 9: 155, 1971.
- Stefanac & Ljubesic, J. gen. Virol. 13: 51, 1971.
- Stefanac & Mamula, Ann. appl. Biol. 69: 229, 1972.
- Tochihara, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 34: 129, 1968.
- Tompkins, J. agric. Res. 58: 119, 1939.
- Walters, Adv. Virus Res. 15: 339, 1969.
Chlorotic-necrotic local lesions in Tendergreen mustard leaf 6 days
Systemic mottle with ringspots in leaf of Chinese White Winter radish.
Systemic chlorotic ring pattern in leaf of Snowball Y cauliflower,
15 days after inoculation.
Necrotic rings in inoculated leaf of Turkish tobacco, 10 days after
Enations on adaxial surface of Chinese White Winter radish leaf.
Schlieren pattern of partially purified virus preparation sedimenting
left to right, after 8 min at 35,600 rpm.
Gel immunoelectrophoresis of radish mosaic virus. Top strip (RA)
contains homologous radish mosaic virus antiserum, lower strip (AA) contains
antiserum to Arkansas isolate of cowpea mosaic virus.
Particles stained in phosphotungstate. Bar represents 100 nm.