Peach rosette mosaic virus
H. F. Dias
Research Station, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Vineland Station, Ontario, Canada
- Described by Cation (1933, 1942); Dias (1968); Ramsdell & Myers (1974).
- Selected synonyms
- Grape decline virus (Dias, 1968)
- Grapevine degeneration virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 54, 1375)
- An RNA-containing virus with isometric particles about 28 nm in diameter.
Soil-borne, reportedly transmitted by nematodes and readily transmissible by
inoculation with sap. Found naturally in peach orchards and vineyards in USA.
Causes degeneration of grape (Vitis labrusca
cv. Concord), and mosaic
and rosetting of peach (Prunus persica
Only found in USA, mostly in Michigan State; a few cases reported in peaches
from New York State (Hildebrand, 1941
Host Range and Symptomatology
Found naturally in Concord grapes and peaches. The virus was recently
isolated from Taraxacum officinale
(dandelion) and Solanum
(horse-nettle) growing in infected vineyards (D. C. Ramsdell,
unpublished data). Some species of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Leguminosae
and Solanaceae can be infected by mechanical inoculation with sap.
spp., particularly C. amaranticolor
are very susceptible. In most herbaceous hosts the inoculated leaves are
infected but remain symptomless, and symptoms on uninoculated leaves are
mild and transient. Isolates differ in virulence.
- Diagnostic species
- By grafting:
- Vitis labrusca cv. Concord (grapevine). Delayed bud-break (Fig.3),
asymmetric and mottled leaves (Fig.8), shoots with short internodes, shelling
of berries and stunting of vines which may eventually die.
- Prunus persica (peach). Delayed leaf development; chlorotic mottling,
wavy leaf margins and later severe distortion of leaves; extreme shortening of
the internodes leading to a rosette type of growth (Fig.4) and sometimes death
of infected trees.
- By sap inoculation:
- Chenopodium amaranticolor. Faint chlorotic lesions develop in
inoculated leaves within 4-7 days. Systemic symptoms may include mottling and
leaf deformity, distortion and necrosis of the shoot tip (Fig.2), and stunting
of the plant within 7 to 10 days.
- C. quinoa. Faint, chlorotic local lesions in inoculated leaves
within 4-7 days followed by epinasty and abscission; lesions may become
necrotic in winter. Uninoculated leaves show mottle, yellow blotch and epinasty;
there is severe stem twisting and frequently death of the shoot tip (Fig.1).
- Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Harrow Velvet. Chlorotic lesions or necrotic
ringspots are induced in inoculated leaves but only by virulent strains; mild
but transient systemic chlorotic ringspots occur later (Fig.7).
- Propagation species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa are good hosts for
maintaining cultures. Highly infective inoculum is obtained from systemically
infected leaves of C. quinoa 8-10 days after inoculation of the plants.
- Assay species
- No reliable local lesion host has been reported, but in winter or with
virulent isolates C. quinoa sometimes may be used.
Isolates from peach and grape produced reactions of complete identity in
gel-diffusion tests with homologous or heterologous antisera, and shared all
antigenic groups with each other in cross-absorption tests. In one instance,
however, a less virulent isolate from grape contained additional antigenic
determinants not present in other isolates from peach or grape as detected by
cross-absorption and spur formation in gel-diffusion tests (Dias, 1972
& Cation, 1975
Transmission by Vectors
The virus is soil-borne; healthy peaches and grapes become infected when
planted in infected soils (Cation, 1942
). Steam treatment of infested soil
from peach orchards prevented transmission (Fulton & Cation, 1959
nematode species, Xiphinema americanum
and a Criconemoides
were reported to be vectors (Klos et al., 1967
), but the record for Criconemoides
Ramsdell & Myers (1974)
populations of X. americanum
and Criconemoides xenoplax
occasion, low populations of Trichodorus
sp. in soils from infested
vineyards. Under greenhouse conditions, hand-picked X. americanum
transmitted the virus from mechanically infected C. quinoa
, but not to healthy grapes; percentage of transmission was low and
erratic (H. F. Dias, unpublished data). The aphid Myzus persicae
to transmit the virus from C. quinoa
to C. quinoa
of the length of the acquisition feeding period (Dias & Cation, 1975
Transmission through Seed
Not known whether the virus is seed-borne in peach or grape. Transmitted
frequently through seed of C. quinoa
(Dias & Cation, 1975
Transmission by Dodder
Not transmitted by the dodder Cuscuta campestris
The virus is moderately immunogenic and titres of 1/256 are obtained by
intramuscular injection of partially purified virus and Freunds complete
adjuvant. The virus forms a single band of precipitate in gel-diffusion
Peach rosette mosaic virus did not react serologically with antisera to
, grapevine chrome mosaic
, tomato ringspot
, tobacco ringspot
tomato black ring
, tomato bushy stunt
, tomato top necrosis, raspberry ringspot
and prune dwarf
viruses and to several strains (type, elderberry, rhubarb,
dogwood) of cherry leaf roll virus
Stability in Sap
In C. quinoa
sap, the thermal inactivation point (10 min) is
58-68°C, the dilution end-point 10-3
, and the
virus retains infectivity for about 15-25 days at room temperaure (20°C).
Sap retained some infectivity after 3 months at -15°C (Dias & Cation,
The following method gives highly infective preparations (Dias &
Blend 100 g of infected C. quinoa
leaves with 200 ml 0.02 M phosphate
buffer (pH 7) containing 0.02 M 2-mercaptoethanol and 0.02 M Na
diethyldithiocarbamate (DIECA), filter extract through cheesecloth and freeze
overnight. Thaw and centrifuge at 13,000 g
for 30 min and dialyse
the supernatant fluid for 20 h against 5 vol 20% (w/v) ammonium sulphate. Remove
precipitated material by centrifugation at 13,000 g
for 30 min and
concentrate the virus from the supernatant fluid by a single cycle of differential centrifugation,
resuspending virus-containing pellets in 0.01 M phosphate buffer,
pH 7. Pass the virus suspension through a G 200 Sephadex column using 0.017 M
phosphate buffer, pH 7. Concentrate virus-containing fractions by differential
centrifugation. Further purification is by rate zonal density gradient
Properties of ParticlesDias & Cation (1975)
reported three components in purified preparations
analysed by rate-zonal centrifugation in sucrose density gradients (Fig.5
top component (T) contained empty and disrupted virus particles; the middle (M)
and bottom (B) components contained intact virus particles. When partially
separated by additional gradient centrifugation M and B were both infectious and
serologically related. When inoculated separately into C. quinoa
components were reproduced. The presence of M and B components in preparations
was not dependent on the buffer used (pH 5.5 to pH 8), nor on the time after
inoculation when the host was sampled. The virus precipitates between pH 4.0 and
pH 5.0 (Dias & Cation, 1975
). Sedimentation coefficient
): 52 S (T), 115 S(M), 134 S(B) (Dias & Cation,
Particles are isometric and range from 24 to 31 nm, averaging 28 nm (Fig.6
M and B components average 27 and 29 nm respectively (Dias & Cation, 1975
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Peach rosette mosaic virus can be mechanically transmitted from peach or
grape to herbaceous hosts using inoculum prepared by grinding 0.2 to 0.5 g young
infected leaf tissue in 5 to 10 ml of either 0.067 M phosphate buffer pH 8 (alone
or containing 0.02 M DIECA), or in 2.5% nicotine solution. Transmission from grapes
is best achieved by the use of nicotine solution and by subjecting the test plants
to a dark period of 24 h before inoculation. Peach rosette mosaic disease is
different from the peach rosette diseases described in New Zealand (Fry &
), Australia (Stubbs & Smith, 1971
and USA (McClintock, 1923
- Cation, Q. Bull. Mich. St. Univ. agric. Exp. Stn 16: 79, 1933.
- Cation, Tech. Bull. Mich. St. Univ. agric. Exp. Stn 180: 24 pp., 1942.
- Cation, USDA Handbook 10: 14, 1951.
- Dias, Weinberg und Keller 9: 516, 1968.
- Dias, Annls Phytopath. No. hors-sÚrie: 97, 1972.
- Dias & Cation, Can. J. Bot. 54: 1228, 1975.
- Fry & Wood, N.Z. Jl. agric. Res. 14: 515, 1971.
- Fulton & Cation, Pl. Dis. Reptr 46: 991, 1959.
- Hildebrand, Phytopathology 31: 353, 1941.
- Klos, Fronek, Knierim & Cation, Q. Bull. Mich. St. Univ. agric. Exp. Stn 49: 287, 1967.
- McClintock, J. agric. Res. 24: 307, 1923.
- Ramsdell & Myers, Phytopathology 64: 1174, 1974.
- Stubbs & Smith, Aust. J. agric. Res. 22: 771, 1971.
Chenopodium quinoa with leaf deformity, distortion of the shoot tip and epinasty.
C. amaranticolor with mottle, leaf deformity, distortion and shoot
Vitis labrusca cv. Concord. (Left) delayed bud-break and stunting
after inoculation with peach rosette mosaic virus. (Right) healthy plant of similar
Shoot of a peach seedling with severe rosette after mechanical inoculation
with peach rosette mosaic virus.
Ultraviolet absorbance scanning pattern at 254 nm of partially purified
virus centrifuged for 2 h at 90,000 g in a continuous gradient of
6-60% sucrose. Sedimentation is from left to right.
Electron micrograph of a purified virus preparation (grape isolate)
negatively stained with 200 phosphotungstate. Bar represents 50 nm.
Leaf of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Harrow Velvet showing systemic
Young leaf of Concord grape with vein-clearing and asymmetrical growth.