Arabis mosaic virus
A. F. Murant
Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland
- Described by Smith & Markham (1944).
- Selected synonyms
- Raspberry yellow dwarf virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 37: 669; 39: 261)
- Rhabarber-Mosaik-Virus (rhubarb mosaic virus) (Rev. appl. Mycol. 37:
64; 39: 561)
- An RNA-containing virus which has isometric particles about 30 nm in diameter and occurs
in Europe. It is readily sap-transmissible, has a wide host range, infects the seed of many host
plants, and is transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum.
Causes yellow dwarf of raspberry, mosaic and yellow crinkle of strawberry, stunt mottle of
cucumber, chlorotic stunt of lettuce, stunting and necrosis of celery, and yellow net of
, and is one of the causes of mosaic of rhubarb. It occurs in many
other plants including sugar beet, hop, horseradish, Narcissus
, rose, Sambucus
nigra, Ligustrum vulgare
, white clover and grapevine. Grapevine plants more commonly
contain grapevine fanleaf virus
, which is distantly serologically related to arabis mosaic virus, and
is the subject of another Description. In association with viruses of the prunus necrotic ringspot
type it causes one form of rasp-leaf of cherry.
Natural spread is not reported outside Europe. The virus has been found in stocks of
rhubarb in Canada (R. Stace-Smith, personal communication).
Host Range and Symptomatology
Occurs naturally in many species of wild and cultivated monocotyledonous and
dicotyledonous plants. It infected 93 species in 28 dicotyledonous families when transmitted by
mechanical inoculation (Schmelzer, 1962
), and it is also reported to infect the roots of the
gymnosperm Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
. It infects almost all commonly used
herbaceous test plants, but isolates of the virus differ in virulence.
- Diagnostic species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Chlorotic local lesions (Fig.1);
systemic chlorotic mottle (Fig.5).
- Cucumis sativus (cucumber). Chlorotic local lesions; systemic yellow spots or
veinbanding (Fig.3), subsequently fading. Plants then stop growing.
- Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley (tobacco). Chlorotic or necrotic local lesions.
Some isolates give systemic yellow spots and rings (Fig.2) and line patterns. Leaves produced
later appear almost normal but contain virus.
- Phaseolus vulgaris cv. The Prince (French bean). Faint chlorotic local lesions;
systemic necrosis and distortion.
- Petunia hybrida. Local chlorotic lesions or necrotic rings. Systemic vein-clearing
or chlorotic rings and line-patterns (Fig.4). Leaves produced subsequently are symptomless but
- Propagation species
- Petunia hybrida is a useful plant for maintaining cultures; P. hybrida and
Nicotiana clevelandii are good sources of virus for purification.
- Assay species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor can be used to assay virulent isolates; with avirulent
isolates, lesions on most hosts are too indistinct to count. Cucumis sativus is a convenient
bait plant in nematode transmission tests.
Most isolates seem to differ little from the type strain, apart from minor differences in
virulence. However, the strain from hop (Bock, 1966
) infects only Chenopodium
and C. quinoa
of the herbaceous test plants tried, and differs
serologically from the type strain; its vector is unknown.
Transmission by Vectors
The type strain is transmitted by the free-living, soil-inhabiting nematodes, Xiphinema
(Jha & Posnette, 1959
; Harrison & Cadman, 1959
) and X.
(Fritzsche & Schmidt, 1963
). Larvae and adults of X. diversicaudatum
transmit, but the adult does not pass the virus to its progeny nor is the virus retained after
moulting. X. diversicaudatum
can acquire the virus after access to infected plants for 1
day and can inoculate bait plants in 3 days (Jha & Posnette, 1961
). The nematodes retain
virus for at least 31 days when kept in fallow soil (Jha & Posnette, 1961
) and for at least 8
months when kept on a virus-immune variety of raspberry (Harrison & Winslow, 1961
Virus-like particles were associated with the cuticular linings of the lumina of the
odontophore (stylet extension) and the oesophagus of X. diversicaudatum which had fed
on plants infected with arabis mosaic virus (Taylor & Robertson, 1970).
Transmission through Seed
Seed-borne in at least 15 spp. in 12 plant families. In many hosts more than 10%, and in
some nearly 100%, of progeny seedlings are infected. Many plants infected through seed show
no symptoms (Lister & Murant, 1967
; Murant & Lister, 1967
Transmission by DodderCuscuta subinclusa
and C. californica
transmitted the virus frequently,
only occasionally (Schmelzer, 1962
Antisera with titres of 1/500-1/1000 are readily obtained. Precipitin tests in tubes,
microprecipitin tests, or gel-diffusion tests in 1% agar are satisfactory. The virus produces one
line of precipitation in gel-diffusion tests.
Most isolates seem closely related serologically to the type strain (Cadman, 1960
). The hop line-pattern strain can be distinguished from the type strain by spur-formation in
gel-diffusion tests (Bock, 1966
), but the extent of difference was not reported.
Harrison (1958) found that cross-protection occurred between different isolates but Jha
(1961) and Hollings (1963) reported that protection was sometimes incomplete or
non-reciprocal. Schmelzer (1963) found that cross-protection was more consistent between
isolates of arabis mosaic virus than between those of tomato black ring virus.
Arabis mosaic virus is distantly serologically related to grapevine fanleaf virus (Cadman,
Dias & Harrison, 1960). It also resembles in many properties other nepoviruses (strawberry
latent ringspot, tobacco ringspot,
tomato black ring and tomato ringspot) but is unrelated to them
Stability in Sap
In Petunia hybrida
sap, the virus lost infectivity after 10 min at 55-61°C,
storage at room temperature for 1-2 weeks, or dilution to 10-3
). Some strains survive longer periods in sap at room temperature (Hollings,
; Schmelzer, 1962
A modification of Steeres butanol/chloroform method is useful (Harrison & Nixon,
Properties of Particles
The particles are all the same size but sediment as three components, apparently empty
protein shells (T) and two kinds of nucleoprotein (M and B).
- Sedimentation coefficients (s20,w) (svedbergs): 53 (T),
93 (M), 126 (B) (R. Stace-Smith, personal communication).
- Other physical properties unknown.
Isometric, about 30 nm in diameter with a 5 or 6-sided angular outline (Harrison &
). The protein shell may be composed of 42 morphological subunits (Agrawal, 1967
Electron micrographs show some particles completely, some partially and some not penetrated
by negative stain (Fig.6
). These particles possibly correspond to the T, M and B components.
Single-stranded; about 27% (M) and 41% (B) of the particle weight (estimated
from the sedimentation coefficients).
Relations with Cells and Tissues
In Chenopodium amaranticolor
, inclusion bodies form adjacent to the cell nuclei;
some of them contain particles arranged in spheroidal shells (Gerola et al., 1965
; I. M.
Roberts, personal communication).
Diseases caused by this virus are distributed patchily in crops because of the slow
migration of the soil-inhabiting vectors, Xiphinema
spp. The virus tends to occur in soils
together with strawberry latent ringspot virus
, with which it shares the vector, X.
. These two viruses are difficult to distinguish from each other with certainty
by their reactions in host plants but are serologically unrelated. As with other nepoviruses
serological tests provide the only reliable means of identification.
- Agrawal, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 17: 84, 1967.
- Bock, Ann. appl. Biol. 57: 131, 1966.
- Cadman, Virology 11: 653, 1960.
- Cadman, Dias & Harrison, Nature, Lond. 187: 577, 1960.
- Fritzsche & Schmidt, Naturwissenschaften 50: 163, 1963.
- Gerola, Bassi & Betto, Caryologia 18: 353, 1965.
- Harrison, Ann. appl. Biol. 46: 221, 1958.
- Harrison & Cadman, Nature, Lond. 184: 1624, 1959.
- Harrison & Nixon, Virology 12: 104, 1960.
- Harrison & Winslow, Ann. appl. Biol. 49: 621, 1961.
- Hollings, J. hort. Sci. 38: 138, 1963.
- Jha, J. hort. Sci. 36: 219, 1961.
- Jha & Posnette, Nature, Lond. 184: 962, 1959.
- Jha & Posnette, Virology 13: 119, 1961.
- Lister & Murant, Ann. appl. Biol. 59: 49, 1967.
- Murant & Lister, Ann. appl. Biol. 59: 63, 1967.
- Schmelzer, Phytopath. Z. 46: 105, 1962.
- Schmelzer, Phytopath. Z. 46: 315, 1963.
- Smith & Markham, Phytopathology 34: 324, 1944.
- Taylor & Robertson, Rep. Scott. hort. Res. Inst., 1969: 63, 1970.
Local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor.
Systemic symptoms in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley.
Systemic symptoms in Cucumis sativus.
Systemic vein-clearing in Petunia hybrida.
Systemic symptoms in Chenopodium amaranticolor.
Particles mounted in phosphotungstate. Bar represents 100 nm.