Prune dwarf virus
R. W. Fulton
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Described by Thomas & Hildebrand (1936)
Moore & Keitt (1944)
- Selected synonyms
- Sour cherry yellows virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 19: 30)
- Chlorogenus cerasae (Rev. appl. Mycol. 24: 235)
- Cherry chlorotic ringspot virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 45: 2174)
- Peach stunt virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 37: 91)
A virus with isometric particles about 22 nm in diameter. It is transmitted readily
when sap from young leaves is used for inoculum and has a fairly wide host range. No
Causes dwarf (narrow, leathery leaves) in Italian prune
), Krikon and certain
other plum varieties. Causes yellows in sour cherry
), especially when
prunus necrotic ringspot virus
is also present
(Cropley et al., 1964
). In Prunus
the virus causes chlorotic ringspot, small etched necrotic spots, or yellow
Temperate regions where Prunus
spp. are cultivated.
Host Range and Symptomatology
The experimental host range is fairly wide; the virus has been transmitted to species
in 15 dicotyledonous families (Fulton, 1957a
- Cucumis sativus (cucumber). Small (1-2 mm) chlorotic primary lesions; systemic
mosaic, which may be restricted to parts of leaves. No tip killing.
- Cucurbita maxima cv. Buttercup (squash). Systemically infected leaves show
interveinal chlorotic areas, then become bright yellow
- Sesbania exaltata. Small dark local lesions in cotyledons
(Fig.3). Not systemic.
- Crotalaria spectabilis. Small dark local lesions; not systemic.
- Momordica balsamina. Chlorotic primary lesions; systemic mottle.
- Tithonia speciosa. Most isolates cause prominent chlorotic lines
(Fig.4); some do not infect.
- Prunus serrulata cv. Shirofugen (flowering cherry). Implanted virus-carrying
buds cause local necrosis and gumming (Milbrath & Zeller, 1945).
- Vinca rosea, Prunus persica, or P. mahaleb are good species for maintaining
cultures. Cucurbita maxima cv. Buttercup is a good source of virus for purification.
- Sesbania exaltata has been used for local lesion assay. Crotalaria spectabilis
also appears suitable.
Many isolates differ in symptomatology and herbaceous host range. Some are more
rapidly invasive in Prunus
Transmission by Vectors
No vectors are known. The virus is pollen-borne in cherry and infects healthy trees,
in low percentage, when they are pollinated with infected pollen
(George & Davidson, 1964
Transmission through Seed
Occurs in up to 70-80% of the seeds of Prunus
species, although differentiation
prunus necrotic ringspot virus
is not clear in some reports
(Megahed & Moore, 1967
Transmission by Dodder
The virus is moderately immunogenic. Antiserum in rabbits is produced more
efficiently by intramuscular injection of virus emulsified in Freunds incomplete
adjuvant than by intravenous injections. Injections are more efficient at 3-4 day
intervals than at longer intervals. The virus reacts well in agar double diffusion
tests, giving a single line of precipitate, and gives a granular precipitate in liquid
tests (Fulton & Hamilton, 1960
Chlorotic ringspot and yellow mosaic viruses of cherry are identical or closely
related to prune dwarf virus
). It may occur with, and
somewhat resembles, prunus necrotic ringspot virus
, but there is no serological
cross-reaction between these two viruses (Fulton & Hamilton, 1960
Stability in Sap
In undiluted cucumber sap about half the infectivity is lost in 30 sec. In sap
diluted with phosphate buffer the maximum longevity is 15-18 hr. Infectivity is
stabilized in extracts by including both Na-diethyldithiocarbamate (0.01 M) and
cysteine hydrochloride (0.005 M) in the extracting buffer. With infectivity chemically
stabilized, thermal inactivation points (10 min) ranged from 45 to 54°C for
(Waterworth & Fulton, 1964
). Virus in tissue withstands rapid
freezing to -78°C, but not slow freezing
The method used for
prunus necrotic ringspot virus
) is effective.
Homogenize systemically infected squash leaves, cold, in 0.02 M, pH 8.0 phosphate
buffer, 1.5 ml/g tissue. Buffer is 0.02 M with respect to 2-mercaptoethanol and
(Hampton & Fulton, 1961
After low speed centrifugation,
mix the supernatant liquid thoroughly with 0.8 vol of hydrated calcium phosphate and
again centrifuge at low speed for 10-20 min. Sediment the virus by centrifuging 3 hr
at 78,000 g
. Resuspend pellets in 0.02 M, pH 8.0 phosphate buffer,
bring to pH 4.8-5.0 with citric acid, remove precipitate by centrifugation, neutralize
the supernatant liquid and concentrate the virus by high speed centrifugation.
Precipitation of host protein by anti-host serum has been used for further purification.
Properties of Particles
The virus has at least two kinds of particles, sedimenting at different rates.
Only the faster sedimenting particles are infective.
A260/A280: c. 1.56.
Particles are isometric, about 22 nm in diameter
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Prune dwarf virus causes shock symptoms in sour cherry resembling those caused
by prunus necrotic ringspot virus
but they are usually milder and involve only leaves
that are unfolded and partially expanded, whereas those caused by prunus necrotic
ringspot virus appear in small leaves before they unfold.
- Cropley, Gilmer & Posnette, Ann. appl. Biol. 53: 325, 1964.
- Fulton, Phytopathology 47: 215, 1957a.
- Fulton, Phytopathology 47: 683, 1957b.
- Fulton, Virology 9: 522, 1959.
- Fulton, Phytopathology 58: 635, 1968.
- Fulton & Hamilton, Phytopathology 50: 635, 1960.
- George & Davidson, Can. J. Pl. Sci. 44: 383, 1964.
- Hampton & Fulton, Virology 13: 44, 1961.
- Kegler, Phytopath. Z. 54: 305, 1965.
- Megahed & Moore, Phytopathology 57: 821, 1967.
- Milbrath, Phytopathology 46: 638, 1956.
- Milbrath & Zeller, Science, N.Y. 101: 114, 1945.
- Moore & Keitt, Phytopathology 34: 1009, 1944.
- Nemeth, Zast., Bilja 16 (85-88): 441, 1965.
- Thomas & Hildebrand, Phytopathology 26: 1145, 1936.
- Waterworth & Fulton, Phytopathology 54: 1155, 1964.
Symptoms of prune dwarf in Italian prune.
Yellows symptoms in a leaf of sour cherry (courtesy J. D. Moore).
Local lesions in a cotyledon of Sesbania exaltata.
Chlorotic lines and bands in Tithonia speciosa.
Purified preparation of prune dwarf virus, fixed in acrolein-glutaraldehyde
and stained with phosphotungstate. Bar represents 50 nm. Micrograph by G. Gaard.