Satsuma dwarf virus
Institute for Plant Virus Research, Yatabe, Ibaraki 300-21, Japan
Institute for Plant Virus Research, Yatabe, Ibaraki 300-21, Japan
Described by Yamada & Sawamura (1950)
A virus with isometric RNA-containing particles about 26
nm in diameter, with three centrifugal components. It is
transmissible mechanically with difficulty from young
leaves of citrus to citrus and to herbaceous plants. The
virus has a relatively wide host range. Found in Japan and
Turkey. No vector is known.
Causes stunting, leaf malformation and rosetting of
satsuma orange (Citrus unshiu
the leaves produced in spring have the shape of an
inverted boat or spoon (Fig.1
). Viruses related to
satsuma dwarf virus are associated with citrus mosaic,
navel orange infectious mottling and natsudaidai dwarf
Widely distributed in Japan and reported from Turkey
Host Range and Symptomatology
Restricted in nature to citrus, but can be transmitted
mechanically to a relatively wide range of herbaceous
species in eight families of dicotyledonous plants
(Tanaka & Kishi, 1963
; Kishi & Tanaka, 1964
Tanaka & Nakanishi, 1972
; Usugi & Saito, 1977
Many citrus plants develop only transient symptoms when
infected (Miyakawa, 1969
- Diagnostic species
- Chenopodium quinoa. Chlorotic or necrotic local
lesions in the inoculated leaves; not systemic (Fig.2).
- Physalis floridana. Systemic mottling and
- Sesamum indicum (white sesame). Local lesions
in the inoculated leaves; vein-clearing, necrosis, curling
and malformation of the upper leaves (Fig.3).
- Vigna sinensis (cowpea) cv. Blackeye. Local
lesions in the inoculated leaves, mottling and
vein-clearing on the upper leaves; necrotic streaks on
petioles and stems (Fig.5).
- Propagation species
- Physalis floridana is a suitable host for
maintaining the virus, and is the best source of virus
- Assay species
- Chenopodium quinoa can be used for local
Virus isolates associated with citrus mosaic, navel
orange infectious mottling and natsudaidai dwarf diseases
are serologically related to satsuma dwarf virus and are
considered to be strains (Imada, 1977
; Imada, Narisawa
& Tanaka, 1977
). Satsuma dwarf virus protects satsuma
orange against infection with the other strains except
that associated with natsudaidai dwarf disease (Tanaka
& Yamada, 1969
). The strains can be distinguished
from one another by the reaction of citrus and herbaceous
indicator plants (Tanaka, 1971
; Tanaka & Nakanishi,
; Tanaka & Yamada, 1972
Transmission by Vectors
No vectors known.
Transmission through Seed
The virus was transmitted to progeny seedlings through
8.6% of the seeds of infected Phaseolus vulgaris
(kidney bean) cv. Satisfaction, but not through seeds of
white sesame or Citrus sulcata
Transmission by Dodder
The virus was not transmitted from infected herbaceous
plants to citrus by Cuscuta japonica
The virus is moderately immunogenic giving antiserum
with a gel-diffusion titre of 1/320 and a complement
fixation titre of 1/640. In gel-diffusion tests the virus
produces one line of precipitate (Usugi & Saito,
The virus did not react with antisera against tomato
, tomato ringspot
, cherry leaf roll
, raspberry ringspot
, strawberry latent ringspot
bean pod mottle
, cowpea mosaic
, cucumber mosaic
(Usugi & Saito, 1977
), mulberry ringspot
(Tsuchizaki et al., 1971
) or grapevine Bulgarian
viruses (T. Usugi, unpublished data).
Stability in Sap
In sap of Physalis floridana
, the thermal
inactivation point (10 min) for infectivity is 50-55°C
and the dilution end-point is 1/1280-1/2560; infectivity
persists for 8-12 days at room temperature (Imada, 1977
Harvest Physalis floridana
plants about 2 weeks
after inoculation, then homogenize at 4°C in 0.1 M
sodium citrate containing 0.1% thioglycollic acid (pH 6.8)
(3 ml extractant per g tissue). Express the juice through
cheesecloth, and add 10 ml magnesium bentonite suspension
(50 mg/ml) to every 100 ml extract (Dunn & Hitchborn,
). Shake the mixture, and clarify by low-speed
centrifugation. Precipitate the virus by adding 25 g
ammonium sulphate per 100 ml supernatant fluid. Resuspend
the pellets in 0.005 M borate buffer containing
M EDTA (pH 8.6) and shake with 1/5 vol
carbon tetrachloride for 15 min. Centrifuge, and subject
the aqueous phase to 1 or 2 cycles of differential
centrifugation, resuspending the pellets in the same
buffer. Sucrose density-gradient centrifugation can be
used for further purification (Usugi & Saito, 1977
Properties of Particles
Purified virus preparations contain three centrifugal
components. Top (T), found in trace amounts, is probably
free of RNA: middle (M) and bottom (B) contain RNA.
Infectivity is greatest when M and B are mixed.
Sedimentation coefficients (s°20,w)
in 0.01 M NaCl (svedbergs): about 119 (M) and 129 (B).
Buoyant density in CsCl (g/cm3): about 1.43 (M)
and 1.46 (B) (Usugi & Saito, 1977).
Particles are isometric, about 26 nm in diameter
(Saito et al., 1963
Particle CompositionNucleic acid
: RNA, probably single-stranded,
comprising about 33% (M) or about 37% (B) of the
particle weight, estimated from the buoyant density in
CsCl. M component contains a RNA species of M. Wt
1.7 x 106
and B component contains a RNA of
M. Wt 1.9 x 106
(T. Usugi, unpublished data).
Protein: Protein, prepared by boiling purified
virus for 1 min in 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate + 1%
mercaptoethanol, shows two bands in SDS-polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis, with estimated M. Wt 42,000 and
21,000, the two proteins occurring in about equimolar
amounts. It is not known whether the two proteins
represent distinct polypeptides or derivatives of a
single polypeptide (T. Usugi, unpublished data).
Relations with Cells and Tissues
In leaf cells of infected herbaceous plants,
electron microscopy reveals (i) tubular structures
in cell wall outgrowths, containing single rows of
spherical particles (Fig.7
), (ii) virus particles
in a lattice array and (iii) characteristic vesicular
inclusion bodies. No virus particles are observed in
the nuclei, chloroplasts, or mitochondria (Saito &
; Hibino et al., 1977
Satsuma orange trees are occasionally infected
with citrus tatter-leaf virus. However, satsuma dwarf
virus is distinguished from citrus tatter-leaf virus
and other sap-transmissible viruses in citrus because
it is the only one that induces symptoms in white
- Azeri, Pl. Dis. Reptr 57: 149, 1973.
- Dunn & Hitchborn, Virology 25: 171, 1965.
- Hibino, Tsuchizaki, Usugi & Saito, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 43: 255, 1977.
- Imada, Shokubutsu-boeki 31: 399, 1977.
- Imada, Narisawa & Tanaka, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 43: 101, 1977.
- Kishi, Bull. hort. Res. Stn Japan, Ser. A, 6: 115, 1967.
- Kishi & Tanaka, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 29: 142, 1964.
- Miyakawa, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 35: 224, 1969.
- Saito & Hibino, Proc. 5th Conf. int. Organization of Citrus Virologists, 1972: 217, 1972.
- Saito, Kishi, Iwata & Tanaka, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 28: 284, 1963.
- Tanaka, Rev. Pl. Protection Res. 4: 81, 1971.
- Tanaka & Kishi, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 28: 262, 1963.
- Tanaka & Nakanishi, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 38: 212, 1972.
- Tanaka & Yamada, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 35: 130, 1969.
- Tanaka & Yamada, Proc. 5th Conf. int. Organization of Citrus Virologists, 1972: 71, 1972.
- Tsuchizaki, Hibino & Saito, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 37: 266, 1971.
- Usugi & Saito, Ann. phytopath. Soc. Japan 43: 137, 1977.
- Yamada & Sawamura, Bull. hort. Div. Tokai-Kinki agric. exp. Stn 1: 61, 1950.
Mis-shapen leaves of infected satsuma orange.
(Photograph courtesy of Dr. H. Kitajima)
Local lesions in inoculated leaf of
Necrosis of systemically infected leaves of
Systemic mottling and malformation in
Local lesions in the inoculated leaves and
necrotic streaks in the petioles of Vigna sinensis
Virus particles from a purified preparation
in phosphotungstate. Bar represents 100 nm.
Tubular structure containing virus particles
in cell-wall outgrowth of a leaf cell of systemically
infected Vigna sinensis. Bar represents