Grapevine fanleaf virus
W. B. Hewitt
University of California, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Parlier, California, USA
Institute of Plant Pathology, University of Bari, Italy
H. F. Dias
Canada Agriculture Research Station, Vineland, Ontario, Canada
R. H. Taylor
Victorian Plant Research Institute, Burnley, Melbourne, Australia
- Described by Hewitt (1950b), Cadman, Dias & Harrison (1960),
Dias (1963), Martelli & Hewitt (1963a), Vuittenez (1963), and Taylor
& Hewitt (1964).
- Selected synonyms
- Grapevine arriciamento virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 9: 83)
- Grapevine court-noué virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 9: 83)
- Grapevine infectious degeneration virus (Rev. appl. Mycol.
- Grapevine Reisigkrankheit Virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 13:
- Grapevine roncet virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 9: 83)
- Grapevine urticado virus (Dias, 1950a)
- Others: (Rev. appl. Mycol. 11: 280; 28: 514;
38: 617; 42: 513; 43: 2484)
- A virus with isometric particles about 30 nm in diameter, transmitted
by nematodes (Xiphinema spp.), commonly to Vitis species and
rarely to other species, and readily transmitted by manual inoculation to a
moderate range of other plants. Common in many regions where grapevine
(V. vinifera) has been grown for long periods, and where hybrid
rootstocks are used for grapevine culture.
Specific strains cause fanleaf (Fig.1
), yellow mosaic (Fig.4
and veinbanding diseases (Fig.2
) of grapevine (V. vinifera
isolates are associated with leaf enation, bark- and wood-pitting, and flat
trunk diseases of grapevine.
Occurs in almost all temperate regions of the world wherever Vitis
and hybrid rootstocks of grapevines are grown. The virus is
apparently native to V. vinifera
and originated in the same area as
the host grapevine (Hewitt, 1968
Host Range and Symptomatology
Restricted in nature to Vitis
spp., perhaps because of vector
specificity and the limited host ranges of the vectors. It may be transmitted
experimentally to numerous herbaceous species. (Baldacci et al., 1962
Brückbauer & Rüdel, 1961b
; Cadman et al., 1960
; Martelli & Hewitt, 1963a
; Taylor & Hewitt, 1964
- Diagnostic species
- The virus in grapevine may be diagnosed either by grafting to Vitis
spp. or by inoculating it manually to herbaceous plants and identifying it
- Symptoms in V. vinifera, V. rupestris, many other Vitis spp.
and interspecific hybrids are green or yellow systemic mosaic, rings, line
patterns (Fig.3), and flecks; leaf deformities include open marginal and
petiolar sinuses, and prominent marginal teeth; cane deformities include uneven
internode spacing, double nodes, flat canes, and fasciations (Fig.1), and cells
of phloem and xylem tissues have trabeculae (Gifford et al., 1956).
- Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Chlorotic local
lesions may develop in plants grown in shade at about 18°C; systemically infected
leaves become mottled (Fig.6) with vein clearing, and may be deformed or necrotic.
Symptoms fade as the plants age.
- Cucumis sativus (cucumber). May show chlorotic local lesions (Fig.7).
Systemically infected leaves develop chlorotic or necrotic mosaic, mottle,
blotches, vein flecks or rings. Some strains do not infect.
- Gomphrena globosa. Local lesions (chlorotic spots becoming reddish)
may develop; systemically infected leaves show chlorotic areas, and are twisted.
- Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Bountiful (bean). Chlorotic local lesions may
form. Systemically infected leaves show mottle, vein clearing, line patterns,
chlorotic blotches, and distortion.
- Propagation species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Cucumis sativus, Gomphrena globosa
and Phaseolus vulgaris are sources of virus for purification. G.
globosa is good for maintaining cultures.
- Assay species
- No good local lesion host has been reported, but virus may be assayed by
systemic symptoms in above species. Serology must be used to identify fanleaf
virus. Seedlings and rooted cuttings of V. vinifera and V. rupestris
are good bait plants in studies with nematode vectors.
Many variants have been distinguished by differences in host range and
symptomatology in grapevine. The best-known strains, often mixed in field-grown
Fanleaf strain of Hewitt (1950b). On new spring growth, varying
degrees of mottle, leaves deformed, open petiolar and marginal sinuses, prominent
leaf vein tips, excessive growth of lateral shoots, canes deformed, with irregular
internodes and double nodes (Fig.1 & Fig.3).
Yellow mosaic strain of Hewitt (1950a) and Dias (1950b).
Leaves, shoots, and flower forms of spring growth are often yellow or greenish
yellow (Fig.4). Leaves show various yellow mosaic patterns but seldom have
severe deformities. Also known as grapevine clorose infecciosa virus (Dias,
1950b) and grapevine panachure virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 31:
Veinbanding strain of Goheen & Hewitt (1962), and Martelli &
Hewitt (1963a). Prominent yellow and greenish-yellow
bands, usually forming in older leaves after mid-season and in many varied leaves
thereafter, along veins of the first, second and third order (Fig.2).
Other strains. Strains of fanleaf virus are associated with the wood
pitting disease (Graniti, 1964; Graniti & Martelli, 1965) (Fig.5) and also
the enation disease (Martelli et al., 1966).
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted by the nematodes Xiphinema index
(Hewitt, Raski &
) and X. italiae
(Cohn, Tanne & Nitzany, 1970
). All larval
stages transmit but lose virus after moulting. Adults transmit and can retain
virus for several months even when held in the root zone of a virus-immune host
(Raski et al., 1965
). Virus may be acquired or transmitted within a few
minutes of feeding (Das & Raski, 1968
). Vectors do not transmit virus to
Transmission through Seed
Rarely if ever transmitted to embryo of Vitis vinifera
; virus is
abundant in endosperm of seed from infected vines but not in embryo. It is
transmitted through seed to seedling, however, in Chenopodium
), C. quinoa
), and soybean (Cory & Hewitt, 1968
). Virus occurs
in pollen of grapevine and herbaceous hosts (Cory & Hewitt, 1968
Transmission by DodderCuscuta campestris
did not transmit fanleaf virus to Chenopodium amaranticolor
The virus is moderately immunogenic and is easily prepared free of host
proteins. In gel-diffusion tests it reacts with antisera to produce a distinct
single band of precipitate.
Different strains of fanleaf virus have most of their antigenic groups in common (Cadman et al., 1960
; Barabino, 1963
Dias & Harrison, 1963
Martelli & Hewitt, 1963b
; Taylor & Hewitt, 1964
), and are all
distantly serologically related to arabis mosaic virus
In plant-protection tests, avirulent isolates protect against virulent isolates either completely or partially (Dias & Harrison, 1963;
& Hewitt, 1964).
Stability in Sap
In sap of herbaceous hosts the thermal end point (10 min) is 60-65°C and
the dilution end point 10-3
. The virus retains
infectivity for 15-30 days at about 20°C (Brückbauer & Rüdel,
); Cadman et al., 1960
; Dias, 1963
; Taylor & Hewitt, 1964
The virus is precipitated by 40% acetone, 40% ethanol or a 30-35% saturated
solution of ammonium sulphate (Dias, 1963
-butanol method of Tomlinson, Shepherd & Walker or the
butanol-chloroform method of Steere, followed by density gradient centrifugation,
gives preparations free of plant protein (Dias & Harrison, 1963
; Martelli &
; Taylor & Hewitt, 1964
). Yield of pure virus is often low;
young Phaseolus vulgaris
plants grown at 15-18°C in shade give 1 mg virus/200
g tissue; G. globosa
gives 1 mg virus/400 g tissue.
Properties of Particles
Little information available. Isoelectric point is about pH 4; the virus is
precipitated at this point.
Particles are isometric with angular outlines c
. 30 nm in diameter
) (Dias & Harrison, 1963
; Martelli & Hewitt, 1963b
particles appear hollow (Dias, 1963
) when stained in 2% sodium phosphotungstate
at pH 7; stain penetrates some particles and they contrast poorly.
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Particles of the same size and shape as those of the virus have been found
in rows in the lumens of parenchyma cells of grapevine roots and mesophyll cells
of C. amaranticolor
leaves (Gerola, Bassi & Belli, 1969
Grapevine fanleaf virus may be transmitted mechanically from grapevine tissue
to herbaceous plants by grinding 1 g young leaf tissue in 5 ml 2.5% nicotine
solution (Cadman et al., 1960
), or in phosphate buffer at pH 8. It is also transmissible
in sap from root tips or etiolated shoots of diseased grapevine
ground in phosphate buffer at pH 7. The virus is readily transmissible in sap
from herbaceous hosts, or in partially purified or purified form to etiolated
leaves of grapevine (Hewitt & Cory, 1965
- Baldacci, Belli, Betto & Refatti, Annali Fac. Agr. Univ. Milano 10: 23, 1962.
- Barabino, Hort. Res. 3: 27, 1963.
- Brückbauer & Rüdel, Wein-Wiss. 16: 177, 1961a.
- Brückbauer & Rüdel, Wein-Wiss. 16: 197, 196lb.
- Cadman, Dias & Harrison, Nature, Lond. 187: 577, 1960.
- Cohn, Tanne & Nitzany, Phytopathology 60: 181, 1970.
- Cory & Hewitt, Phytopathology 58: 1316, 1968.
- Das & Raski, Nematologica 14: 55, 1968.
- Dias, Comunic. ao 13e Congr. Luso-Esp. Prog. Cienc. 5: 167, 1950a.
- Dias, Comunic. ao 13e Congr. Luso-Esp. Prog. Cienc. 5: 177, 1950b;
- Dias, Ann. appl. Biol. 51: 85, 1963.
- Dias & Harrison, Ann. appl. Biol. 51: 97, 1963.
- Gerola, Bassi & Belli, G. bot. ital. 103: 271, 1969.
- Gifford, Hewitt, Graham & Lamoureux, Bull. Calif. Dep. Agric. 45: 268, 1956.
- Goheen & Hewitt, Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 13: 73, 1962.
- Graniti, Phytopath. Mediterranea. 3: 19, 1964.
- Graniti & Martelli, Proc. Int. Conf. on Virus Vector Peren. Hosts, Univ. Cal. Agr. Sci., Davis: 168, 1965.
- Hewitt, Bull. Calif. Dep. Agric. 39: 61, 1950a.
- Hewitt, Bull. Calif. Dep. Agric. 39: 62, 1950b.
- Hewitt, Rev. appl. Mycol. 47: 433, 1968.
- Hewitt & Cory, Proc. Int. Conf. Virus Vector Peren. Hosts, Univ. Cal. Agr. Sci., Davis: 322, 1965.
- Hewitt, Raski & Goheen, Phytopathology 48: 586, 1958.
- Martelli, Annali Fac. Agr. Univ. Bari 16: 307, 1962.
- Martelli, Graniti, Lamberti & Quacquarelli, Phytopath. Mediterranea 5: 122, 1966.
- Martelli & Hewitt, Phytopath. Mediterranea 2: 275, 1963a.
- Martelli & Hewitt, Phytopath. Mediterranea 2: 285, 1963b.
- Raski, Hewitt, Goheen, Taylor & Taylor, Nematologica 11: 349, 1965.
- Taylor & Hewitt, Aust. J. agric. Res. 15: 571, 1964.
- Vuittenez, C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Agric. Fr. 49: 795, 1963.
Symptoms caused by the fanleaf strain in leaves and cane of Pinot
Veinbanding strain in leaf of Ribier grape.
Line pattern mosaic symptoms in leaf of Thompson Seedless grape.
Yellow mosaic strain in Vitis rupestris St. George.
Wood pitting strain in Ohanez grape grafted on rootstock Berlandieri
x Riparia 157-U.
Systemic symptoms in leaf of Chenopodium amaranticolor.
Symptoms in inoculated cotyledon of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).
Virus particles from purified preparation in phosphotungstate. Bar
represents 100 nm.