Tobacco streak virus
R. W. Fulton
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
- Annulus orae (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Nicotiana virus 8 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 36: 303)
- Nicotianavirus vulnerans (Rev. appl. Mycol. 36: 303)
- Tractus orae (Rev. appl. Mycol. 20: 85)
An isometric virus with particles 28 nm in diameter. It has a wide host range, but
no known vector. It is readily transmitted by inoculation of sap, but is unstable in
sap. The virus is wide-spread, but not common.
Causes a systemic necrotic disease (necrose branca) in tobacco,
which recovers from symptoms; mottling or no symptoms in dahlia
(Costa & Carvalho, 1961
mottling in cotton
(Costa & Carvalho, 1961
and Melilotus alba
; yellow ringspot and malformation of
(Martelli & Cirulli, 1969
Costa et al., 1961
stunting of asparagus
(Brunt & Paludan, 1970
vein-yellowing in rose
necrotic symptoms in pea
(Patino & Zaumeyer, 1959
(Costa, Carvalho & Deslandes, 1964
(Costa & Carvalho, 1961
It has also been isolated
from grape (J. K. Uyemoto, pers. comm.), papaya (A. F. Ross, pers. comm.), black
raspberry (R. H. Converse, pers. comm.), strawberry
(Stace-Smith & Frazier, 1971
groundnut, velvet bean (Stizolobium deeringianum
number of weed species.
Europe, North and South America, New Zealand.
Host Range and Symptomatology
The host range is wide; many species in 31
monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous families are susceptible.
- Nicotiana tabacumn (tobacco). Local necrotic spots or rings, systemic necrotic
lines and oak-leaf patterns; plant recovers from necrotic symptoms,
and leaves that
expand several weeks after inoculation seem healthy
With many strains, the
recovered leaves of Turkish tobacco have dentate rather than entire margins.
- Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar). Small, dark local lesions
- Vigna cylindrica (catjang). Local reddish necrotic lesions or rings,
depending on the strain of virus
Systemic vein-clearing or necrosis.
- Cultures may be maintained in tobacco or Vinca rosea. Tobacco, Nicotiana
rustica, Datura stramonium and Vigna cylindrica are good sources of one or
other strain of the virus for purification.
- Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Vigna cylindrica, Beta patellaris and Phaseolus
vulgaris cv. Manteiga.
The complex of variants isolated in Brazil is considered a distinct
(Costa & Carvalho, 1961
differing from North American strains in host
range and symptoms. Strains differing from the type in host range and properties
have been obtained from bean with red node disease
(Thomas & Zaumeyer, 1950
pea. Variants are often distinguishable by the type of lesion they produce in Vigna
and by symptoms in other hosts.
Transmission by Vectors
No vectors have been reported.
Transmission through Seed
Reported for bean, Datura stramonium
but not for other hosts tested
Transmission by Dodder
Transmitted by Cuscuta campestris
The virus is not strongly immunogenic, but 10-12 intramuscular
injections at 3 or 4 day intervals of 1 mg of virus emulsified in Freunds incomplete
adjuvant gave antiserum titres of 1/1280 or more (by microprecipitin test).
Precipitates in liquid tests are granular. The virus reacts well in agar
No cross-reactions with other viruses or serological differences
between strains have been described. Strains of the virus reciprocally cross-protect.
In the symptoms it induces, its properties, and the shape of its particles, the
virus resembles the serologically unrelated
Tulare apple mosaic virus
Stability in Sap
Undiluted tobacco sap loses most of its infectivity within
5 min after extraction
and all of its infectivity in less than 36 hr.
Infectivity is lost more slowly in diluted extracts, and is stabilized by
antioxidants, especially 2-mercaptoethanol. Thermal inactivation points between 53
and 64°C have been reported. Dilution end-points of extracts have been reported
between 1/30 and 1/15,625. The virus remains infective for many years in diced
tissue dried cold under vacuum and stored cold.
The following method is effective
heavily infected inoculated leaf tissue at the rate of 100 g in 150 ml of buffer
(0.02 M phosphate, pH 8.0, containing 0.02 M 2-mercaptoethanol) plus 15 g
. After centrifuging 15-20 min at 1500 g
mix the supernatant liquid thoroughly with 80 ml hydrated calcium phosphate per 100
g tissue. Centrifuge at 1500 g
again for 15-20 min. Sediment the virus
from the supernatant liquid by centrifuging 3 hr at 78,000 g
the pellets in 0.01 M disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA), pH 6.0, adjust
the pH to 5.0 with citric acid and remove the precipitate by centrifugation. Readjust
the supernatant liquid, containing the virus, to pH 6.0, and concentrate the virus by
high speed centrifugation. Purified virus is more stable in 0.01 M EDTA, pH 6.0, than
in water or any of a number of buffers. Yields may be up to 45 mg virus per 100 g
tissue. A procedure involving charcoal and freezing clarification, with differential
centrifugation, has been used for the red node strain
(Mink, Saksena & Silbernagel, 1966
Properties of Particles
The virus has at least three kinds of nucleoprotein
particles with sedimentation coefficients (s20, w
about 90 and 113 S. The least rapidly sedimenting particles are non-infectious,
the other two types are weakly infectious alone, but highly infectious when mixed.
Adding the non-infectious particles to mixtures of the other two kinds further
increases infectivity. When components from different strains are mixed the lesion
type seems to be determined by the top or by the middle component
The proportion of the components varies with the host and with the
method of tissue extraction
(Lister & Bancroft, 1970
Absorbance at 260 nm (1 mg/ml, 1 cm light path): 5.1.
A260/A280: c. 1.56.
Particles are isometric, about 28 nm in diameter (Fig.4
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Symptoms in experimental hosts may be confused with those caused by
several other viruses. Identification should be made by cross-protection tests or by
- Brunt, Pl. Path. 17: 119, 1968.
- Brunt, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1968: 104, 1969.
- Brunt & Paludan, Phytopath. Z. 69: 277, 1970.
- Costa & Carvalho, Phytopath. Z. 43: 113, 1961.
- Costa, Carvalho, Oliveira & Deslandes, Bragantia 20: cvii, 1961.
- Costa, Carvalho & Deslandes,Bragantia 23: i, 1964.
- Fulton, Phytopathology 38: 421, 1948.
- Fulton, Phytopathology 39: 231, 1949.
- Fulton, Virology 32: 153, 1967.
- Fulton, Virology 41: 288, 1970a.
- Fulton, Pl. Dis. Reptr 54: 949, 1970b.
- Johnson, Phytopathology 26: 285, 1936.
- Lister & Bancroft, Phytopathology 60: 689, 1970.
- Martelli & Cirulli, Phytopath. Mediterranea 8:154, 1969.
- Mink, Saksena & Silbernagel, Phytopathology 56: 645, 1966.
- Patino & Zaumeyer, Phytopathology 49: 43, 1959.
- Stace-Smith & Frazier, Phytopathology 41: (in press), 1971.
- Thomas & Zaumeyer, Phytopathology 40: 832, 1950.
Systemic necrotic symptoms and recovery of tobacco.
Local necrotic lesions in Cyamopsis tetragonoloba.
Local necrotic lesions of two strains (left and right) in
Purified preparations of virus mounted in phosphotungstate. Bar
represents 100 nm.