Raspberry ringspot virus
A. F. Murant
Scottish Horticultural Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, Scotland
- Described by
Cadman (1956) and
- Selected synonyms
- Raspberry Scottish leaf curl virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 32: 387)
- Red currant ringspot virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 31: 245)
- An RNA-containing virus with isometric particles about 30 nm in diameter occurring
It is readily sap-transmissible, has a wide host range, infects the seed of many
host plants, and is
transmitted by nematodes (Longidorus spp.).
Causes ringspot diseases of raspberry and strawberry, spoonleaf of redcurrant and, in
association with viruses of the
prunus necrotic ringspot
is one of the causes of rasp-leaf
symptoms in cherry. It occurs in many other plants, including grapevine and Narcissus
Host Range and Symptomatology
Occurs naturally in many species of wild and cultivated monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous
plants. Species in more than 14 dicotyledonous families are susceptible.
Infects nearly all commonly
used herbaceous test plants.
- Chenopodium amaranticolor. Chlorotic or necrotic local lesions
- C. quinoa. Chlorotic or necrotic local lesions; systemic chlorotic
mottle or necrosis
- Nicotiana rustica. Local chlorotic or necrotic spots or rings; systemic rings,
line-patterns with variable amounts of necrosis
Leaves produced later appear normal but contain virus.
- N. tabacum cv. White Burley (tobacco). Chlorotic local lesions;
scattered systemic chlorotic spots and rings.
- Phaseolus vulgaris cv. The Prince (French bean). In winter in the
UK, dark brown necrotic local lesions 0.5 mm diameter
in summer chlorotic lesions or none; systemic chlorotic mottle, necrosis and distortion.
- Petunia hybrida. Local chlorotic lesions; systemic veinal chlorosis or
necrosis or line-patterns
Leaves produced subsequently are symptomless but contain virus.
- Propagation species
- Nicotiana rustica is useful for maintaining cultures, N. clevelandii and Petunia hybrida
are good sources of virus for purification.
- Assay species
- Chenopodium amaranticolor is the most reliable local lesion host.
and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) are convenient bait plants
in nematode transmission experiments.
Many minor variants occur. Three important strains are:
The Scottish strain
The type strain.
The English strain
which differs from the Scottish strain
serologically and in vector relationships (see below).
The Lloyd George yellow blotch strain
(Murant, Taylor & Chambers, 1968),
varieties of raspberry immune to the Scottish strain but is serologically similar to it.
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted by free-living soil-inhabiting nematodes (Longidorus
The Scottish strain
and strains closely related serologically are transmitted most efficiently by
English strain by L. macrosoma
Taylor & Murant, 1969
Larvae and adults of L. elongatus
both transmit, but the adult does not pass
the virus to its
progeny, nor is the virus retained when the nematode moults.
kept in fallow soil
retains infectivity up to about 9 weeks. Virus-like particles were associated
with the stylet guiding
sheath of L. elongatus
which had fed on plants infected with raspberry ringspot virus
(Taylor & Robertson, 1969
Transmission through Seed
Probably occurs in most host plants. Reported in at least six species in five plant families.
In some hosts more than 50% of progeny seedlings are infected. Many plants infected through
seed show no symptoms. Virus was transmitted to seed of raspberry and strawberry from either
male or female parent, but plants pollinated with virus-carrying pollen did not become infected
(Lister & Murant, 1967
Besides aiding dissemination of the virus, infection of the seed
seems to provide an important means of survival of the virus in soils
(Murant & Lister, 1967
Transmission by Dodder
Antisera with titres of 1/500 are readily obtained. Precipitin tests in tubes, microprecipitin
tests or gel-diffusion tests in 1% agar are satisfactory. The virus produces a single band of
precipitate in gel-diffusion tests.
The Scottish strain is closely serologically related to a strain causing spoonleaf disease of
redcurrant in the Netherlands
Maat, Van der Meer & Pfaeltzer, 1962
most antisera readily distinguish these strains from those found in England and Germany
Plant-protection between virulent isolates of serologically different strains
is usually complete
but avirulent isolates may not protect plants from infection with virulent isolates,
even when they are closely serologically related
(Murant, Taylor & Chambers, 1968).
Raspberry ringspot virus resembles in many properties other
strawberry latent ringspot,
tomato black ring and
but is unrelated to them serologically.
Stability in Sap
In Nicotiana rustica
sap the virus loses infectivity after 10 min at 65-70°C,
storage at room temperature for 2-3 weeks, or dilution to 10-3
The lesion number decreases with dilution by more than the dilution factor
A modification of Steeres butanol/chloroform method is useful
(Harrison & Nixon, 1960
Properties of Particles
The particles are all the same size but sediment as three components
empty protein shells (T) and two kinds of nucleoprotein with different amounts of RNA
(M and B).
Sedimentation coefficients (s20,w) (svedbergs): about 50 (T), 91 (M),
A260/A280: 1.62 (M), 1.78 (B).
Isometric, about 30 nm in diameter with a 5- or 6-sided angular outline
(Harrison & Nixon, 1960
Electron micrographs show some particles completely, some partially,
and some not penetrated by
These particles possibly correspond respectively to the T, M and B
Murant, Taylor & Chambers, 1968
Detailed structure of the
particle is unknown.
RNA constitutes about 29% (M) and 43% (B) of the particle weight
(estimated from the sedimentation coefficients).
Relations with Cells and Tissues
Inclusion bodies were observed by light microscopy in hair cells of infected
(Bujas & Milicic, 1969
As with other nematode-borne viruses, plants infected with raspberry ringspot virus
distributed in crops
reflecting the distribution of the vectors, which migrate slowly in soils.
Some strains often occur in soils together with strains of
tomato black ring virus
with which they
share the same nematode vector (Longidorus elongatus
These two viruses are serologically
unrelated. They can be distinguished from each other by their reactions in Chenopodium
. In general, however, these and other viruses of the
be reliably identified by host range or symptomatology; serological tests are essential.
- Bujas & Milicic, Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde, Abt.II 123: 209, 1969.
- Cadman, J. hort. Sci. 31: 111, 1956.
- Cadman, Virology 11: 653, 1960.
- Debrot, Ann. appl. Biol. 54: 183, 1964.
- Harrison, Ann. appl. Biol. 46: 571, 1958.
- Harrison, Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 67: 562, 1961.
- Harrison, Virology 22: 544, 1964.
- Harrison & Nixon, Virology 12: 104, 1960.
- Lister & Murant, Ann. appl. Biol. 59: 49, 1967.
- Maat, Van der Meer & Pfaeltzer, Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 68: 120, 1962.
- Murant & Lister, Ann. appl. Biol. 59: 63, 1967.
- Murant, Taylor & Chambers, Ann. appl. Biol. 61: 175, 1968.
- Taylor, Virology 17: 493, 1962.
- Taylor & Murant, Ann. appl. Biol. 64: 43, 1969.
- Taylor & Robertson, Ann. appl. Biol. 64: 233, 1969.
Local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor.
Systemic symptoms in Nicotiana rustica.
Local lesions in Phaseolus vulgaris cv. The Prince.
Systemic necrosis in Chenopodium quinoa.
Systemic symptoms in Petunia hybrida.
Schlieren diagram of a sedimentation analysis of a purified virus preparation
showing (left to right) T, M and B components.
Virus particles from a purified preparation showing some particles completely, some
partially, and some not penetrated by phosphotungstate. Bar represents 50 nm.
Disease outbreak caused by raspberry ringspot virus in Malling Jewel raspberry.