Narcissus yellow stripe virus
A. A. Brunt
Glasshouse Crops Research Institute, Littlehampton, Sussex, England
- Described by Darlington (1908) and Haasis (1939).
- Selected synonyms
- Narcissus greys virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 8: 311)
- Narcissus mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 7: 784), but not now
recommended (see Notes).
- A virus with flexuous filamentous particles c. 12 x 755 nm. Transmissible
by inoculation of sap and by nine aphid species in the non-persistent manner. It
occurs naturally only in members of the Amaryllidaceae, but its distribution is
world-wide. A typical, but apparently distinct, member of the potato virus Y group.
Causes mosaic diseases of daffodils, jonquils and nerines. Infected plants of
most daffodil cultivars show conspicuous chlorotic stripes on leaves (Fig.1
flower stalks, broken flowers (Fig.3
), reduced bulb size and, eventually, severe
stunting; the chlorosis in some cultivars is less conspicuous (Caldwell &
), and the cv. Magnificence usually develops only green stripes (Brunt,
World-wide, especially in temperate regions.
Host Range and Symptomatology
Natural host range apparently restricted to a few members of the Amaryllidaceae,
but the virus can infect one member of the Aizoaceae.
- Diagnostic species
- Narcissus pseudonarcissus (daffodil). Conspicuous chlorotic stripes on
leaves in early spring, but symptoms produced at higher ambient temperatures are
less severe; chlorotic areas often raised and roughened (Caldwell & James, 1938).
Flowers often of poor quality, and sometimes broken. Plants infected early in the
season by aphid transfer or inoculation of sap may produce symptoms within 4 months,
but plants infected later rarely produce symptoms within 15 months.
- Narcissus jonquilla (jonquil). Narrow chlorotic stripes, in some areas
coalescing to produce almost complete chlorosis. Flowers may be broken (Fig.3).
- Nerine bowdenii (nerine). Symptoms essentially similar to but sometimes
less severe than those induced in daffodils (Fig.2).
- Tetragonia expansa. A few chlorotic local lesions after 10-14 days,
enlarging to 6-9 mm in diameter after 28 days (Fig.4); unreliable during summer
- Propagation species
- Narcissus pseudonarcissus and N. jonquilla are both suitable for
maintaining the virus and are good sources of virus for purification; Tetragonia
expansa is also useful.
- Assay species
- N. pseudonarcissus: by recording the proportion of inoculated plants
becoming infected. Tetragonia expansa is useful for local lesion assays
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted by 9 aphid species, including Aphis fabae, Acyrthosiphon pisum
and Macrosiphum euphorbiae
(Blanton & Haasis, 1939
), but not
by Myzus persicae
(van Slogteren & de Bruyn Ouhoter, 1946
). All instars
can transmit; virus is acquired within 2-5 min and inoculated within 5-10 min. No
Transmission through Seed
Not seed- or pollen-borne (Haasis, 1939
; Caldwell, 1946
Transmission by Dodder
The virus is a moderately good immunogen; antisera with titres of 1/5000 have
been produced by injecting rabbits intravenously with partially purified virus 9
times within 12 days (D. H. M. van Slogteren, unpublished). Antisera react in tube
precipitin tests to produce flagellar precipitates, but the microprecipitin test is
more sensitive (van Slogteren, 1955
). Antibodies conjugated with fluorescein
isothiocyanate have been used to locate virus within infected cells (Cremer &
van der Veken, 1964
The virus has properties typical of members of the potato virus Y group
is not serologically related to carnation vein mottle
, bulbous iris mosaic,
, hyacinth mosaic, pepper veinal mottle
, turnip mosaic
or bean yellow mosaic
viruses (van Slogteren, 1955
; Brunt, unpublished) nor to
two other viruses from narcissus, narcissus white streak virus (van Slogteren,
) and narcissus degeneration virus (a newly recognised virus prevalent in
cv. Grand Soleil dOr).
Stability in Sap
In daffodil sap, the thermal inactivation point (10 min) is 70-75°C,
dilution end-point 10-2
and infectivity is retained
at 21-24°C for c.
72 hr (Haasis, 1939
Two methods have proved useful:
1. Cremer & van der Veken (1964). Shred and lyophilize infected daffodil
leaves, and extract with chloroform, ethanol, acetone and ether, retaining the
powdered residue after each extraction. Disperse the powder derived from each
1 g of leaf tissue in 90 ml 0.067 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.2 containing 0.3%
(v/v) potassium cyanide and 0.3% sodium sulphite. Precipitate virus from the
fluid by adding ammonium sulphate to 66% (w/v), resuspend in water, dialyse
exhaustively and clarify by brief low speed centrifugation.
2. Brunt (unpublished). Homogenize infected leaves of daffodil or Tetragonia
expansa (1 g leaf to 3 ml extractant) in 0.1 M borate buffer containing 0.2%
(v/v) thioglycollic acid and 0.05 M disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate (pH 8.0).
Shake the fluid for 1 hr with 25% (v/v) chloroform, centrifuge at 10,000
g for 15-20 min, and sediment virus from the aqueous phase by
centrifugation at 78,500 g for 90 min. Resuspend in 0.05 M neutral
borate buffer, remove insoluble material by low speed centrifugation, and either
repeat the cycle of differential centrifugation, or centrifuge in 10-40% sucrose
density gradients. Recover the virus from the specific light-scattering zone by
dialysis followed by differential centrifugation.
Properties of Particles
The virus particles are flexuous filaments c.
12 x 755 nm (Fig.5
which, in sap mixed with 2% phosphotungstate, sometimes occur in aggregates bounded
by a membrane (Brunt & Atkey, 1967
Relations with Cells and Tissues
The raised and roughened chlorotic surfaces of infected narcissus leaves result
from the abnormal division and growth of parenchyma cells which eventually rupture
the overlying epidermis (Caldwell & James, 1938
). Cremer & van der Veken
found virus throughout the cytoplasm, but not within the nuclei, of all
narcissus tissues; they also found numerous pinwheel inclusions (Fig.6
infected cells, but were unable to confirm earlier reports (McWhorter, 1935
Caldwell & James, 1938
) of amoeboid intracellular inclusions.
The name narcissus mosaic virus was commonly used in USA (McWhorter, 1935
) and occasionally in UK (Caldwell, 1946
) as a synonym for narcissus
yellow stripe virus, but was also used in the Netherlands for another virus (van
Slogteren & de Bruyn Ouboter, 1946
; van Slogteren, 1955
; Cremer & van der
) which was later shown to be a typical but distinct member of the
potato virus X group
). Further confusion can be avoided if the name
narcissus mosaic is now used only for the latter virus. Narcissus greys virus
is also an unsatisfactory synonym, because of possible confusion with narcissus
white streak virus (Moore, 1949
In N. Europe narcissus yellow stripe virus spreads slowly (Hawker, 1943) because
apterous aphids rarely colonise daffodils, and migratory alatae are usually present
for only 4-8 weeks before plants senesce (Broadbent, Green & Walker, 1962).
Nevertheless, it is probably the most damaging of the thirteen viruses known to
infect narcissus; two of these, narcissus white streak virus and narcissus
degeneration virus, have particles similar in size and shape to those of narcissus
yellow stripe virus, but induce different diseases and are serologically distinct
(Brunt, 1970). Of the remaining viruses, narcissus mosaic and narcissus latent
occur naturally only in daffodils, and jonquil mild mosaic only in jonquils, but
seven others (cucumber mosaic, tobacco rattle, tobacco ringspot, arabis mosaic,
strawberry latent ringspot, raspberry ringspot and tomato black ring) have
extensive host ranges and are readily isolated and identified.
- Blanton & Haasis, J. econ. Ent. 32: 469, 1939.
- Blanton & Haasis, J. agric. Res. 65: 413, 1942.
- Broadbent, Green & Walker, Daffodil Tulip Yb. 28: 1, 1962.
- Brunt, Ann. appl. Biol. 58: 13, 1966.
- Brunt, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1967: 102, 1968.
- Brunt, Daffodil Tulip Yb. 36: 18, 1970.
- Brunt & Atkey, Rep. Glasshouse Crops Res. Inst. 1966: 155, 1967.
- Caldwell, Nature, Lond. 158: 735, 1946.
- Caldwell & James, Ann. appl. Biol. 25: 244, 1938.
- Caldwell & Kissick, Daffodil Tulip Yb. 16: 63, 1950.
- Cremer & van der Veken, Neth. J. Pl. Path. 70: 105, 1964.
- Darlington, Jl R. hort. Soc. 34: 161, 1908.
- Haasis, Mem. Cornell Univ. agric. Exp. Stn 224: 22 pp., 1939.
- Hawker, Ann. appl. Biol. 30: 184, 1943.
- McWhorter, Phytopathology 25: 896, 1935.
- Moore, Bull. Minist. Agric. Fish Fd, Lond. 117: 78, 1949.
- van Slogteren, Ann. appl. Biol. 42: 122, 1955.
- van Slogteren & de Bruyn Ouboter, Daffodil Tulip Yb. 12: 3, 1946.
Systemic yellow stripe symptoms in narcissus leaf.
Systemic chlorosis in Nerine bowdenii leaf.
Flower 'break' symptoms in jonquil.
Inoculated Tetragonia expansa leaf showing local lesions.
Sap from narcissus in phosphotungstate showing an aggregate of virus
particles within a membrane. Bar represents
Section of infected daffodil leaf showing pinwheel inclusions. (Photo courtesy Laboratorium voor Bloembollenonderzoek, Lisse, Netherlands.)