Turnip mosaic virus
J. A. Tomlinson
National Vegetable Research Station, Wellesbourne, Warwickshire, England
- Described by Gardner & Kendrick (1921) and Schultz (1921).
- Selected synonyms:
- Brassica virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 17: 52)
- Cabbage virus A (Rev. appl. Mycol. 24: 428)
- Cabbage black ringspot virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 14: 669)
- Cabbage black ring virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 18: 365)
- Daikon mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 44: 896)
- Horseradish mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 43)
- Marmor brassicae (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Radish P and R viruses (Rev. appl. Mycol. 39: 643)
- A virus with flexuous filamentous particles approximately 720 nm long,
sap-transmissible to a wide range of species and transmitted by many aphid species
in the non-persistent manner. World-wide distribution.
Causes mottling and black necrotic spots and ringspots in cabbage, cauliflower
and Brussels sprout; mosaic with leaf distortion and stunting in turnip, swede,
radish, rape, mustard, Chinese cabbage, watercress and horseradish; mottles and
ringspots in rhubarb; and flower-breaks in wallflower, stock, Zinnia,
World-wide. Frequently reported in temperate regions of Africa, Asia, Europe
and N. America.
Host Range and Symptomatology
Host range is wide, susceptible species occurring in 20 dicotyledonous
families. Transmissible by sap inoculation (e.g. from infected Brassica
) to the following:
- Diagnostic species
- Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley (tobacco). Chlorotic local spots
(5-6 days) enlarging up to 5 mm, becoming centrally necrotic, brown-rimmed and
surrounded by a chlorotic halo (Fig.5). Not systemic.
- Brassica rapa (turnip). Pale chlorotic or necrotic local lesions.
Systemic vein clearing and veinal flecking (Fig.1) developing into severe
mosaic with light and dark green patches or blisters (Fig.2). Severe distortion
- Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage). Small local black
necrotic rings or spots (14 days). Usually no vein clearing. Systemic black
ringspots best seen on under side of leaf.
- Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower). Diffuse systemic
mottle composed of small pale green spots or rings which may look like blisters.
On older leaves, black necrotic spots may appear (Fig.4).
- Matthiola incana (stock). Systemic leaf distortion and slight marbling.
Outstanding symptom is flower-breaking i.e. appearance of white or
pale-coloured sectors in coloured flowers (Fig.6).
- Cheiranthus cheiri (wallflower). Similar to Matthiola incana:
broken flowers conspicuous, with yellow stripes and flecks in the petals
of red coloured varieties.
- Chenopodium amaranticolor. Chlorotic spots 5-10 days after inoculation
(with some strains) enlarging into semi-necrotic red or brown-rimmed lesions after
2-3 weeks (Fig.7).
- Chenopodium quinoa. Chlorotic and necrotic lesions
5-10 days after inoculation (Fig.8). Systemic veinal flecks and spots.
- Propagation species
- Isolates can be maintained in Brassica perviridis (tendergreen
mustard), Petunia hybrida or Nicotiana glutinosa; B. perviridis, B.
pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) and B. rapa are good sources of virus
- Assay species
- Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa.
Symptom variations caused by differences in virulence between isolates have
been noted in stock (Tompkins, 1939
), Iceland poppy (McClean & Cowin, 1953
and cauliflower (Broadbent, 1957
). Isolates failing to infect a number of
species including cabbage were obtained from stock (Tompkins,
) and Anemone
). A cabbage isolate was reported to
infect cucumber (Larson & Walker, 1941
). The relationships of some of these
isolates have been discussed by Pound & Walker (1945)
and Sylvester (1953)
Susceptibility of certain lettuce cultivars is related to their resistance to
downy mildew (Zink & Duffus, 1969).
Transmission by Vectors
Transmissible by 40-50 species of aphids, notably Myzus persicae
and Brevicoryne brassicae
(Kennedy, Day & Eastop, 1962
). All instars
can transmit. Virus can be acquired in less than 1 min and inoculated in less
than 1 min (Sylvester, 1953
). No latent period. Virus is retained by feeding
vectors for less than 4 hr (Sylvester, 1954
Transmission through Seed
Transmission by DodderCuscuta californica
and C. campestris
failed to transmit the
virus from infected to healthy lettuce (Zink & Duffus, 1969
Antisera with titres of 1/512 were prepared by Shepherd & Pound (1960)
and Tomlinson & Walkey (1967)
using purified virus isolates obtained
respectively from cabbage and rhubarb. In precipitin tube tests, 0.85% NaCl is
used as diluent. Reactions in such tests give flagellar-type precipitates. In
gel-diffusion tests the virus normally gives no reaction but after ultrasonic
treatment (Tomlinson et al., 1965
; Tomlinson & Walkey, 1967
diffusion of fragmented antigen results in a precipitation line.
Close relationships have been established between cabbage black ringspot,
cabbage virus A and horseradish mosaic isolates (Larson, Matthews & Walker,
); cabbage black ringspot and anemone mosaic isolates (Hollings, 1957
isolates from cabbage, rhubarb and statice (Niblett, Paulus & Semancik, 1969
In plant protection tests isolates may protect against each other, as with cabbage
black ring and cabbage virus A in cabbage and Solanum integrifolium (
Pound & Walker, 1945). In Petunia, Salpiglossis and Chinese cabbage,
Hollings (1957) obtained no protection between cabbage black ringspot virus and
anemone mosaic virus isolates.
Stability in Sap
Properties in vitro
differ between isolates but, in general, the
thermal inactivation point is below 62°C, the dilution end point in sap is
and infectivity is retained at
20°C for 3-4 days. Infective sap kept at 2°C retains infectivity for
Two methods have been used:
1. Shepherd & Pound (1960). Extract tissue in 0.5 M potassium phosphate
buffer (pH 7.5) and filter. Add n-butanol to 8.0%. Clarify and sediment
by differential centrifugation, resuspending pellets in 0.02 M borate buffer
(pH 7.5). The preparations can be further freed from residual host components
by acidification to pH 5.3 and further differential centrifugation.
2. Tomlinson (1964). Extract tissue at pH 7.5 in 0.5 M borate buffer
containing 0.001 M NaEDTA and 0.1% thioglycollic acid. Add n-butanol
to 8.5%. Centrifuge twice at low speed. Sediment by high-speed centrifugation
and resuspend pellets in 0.05 M borate (pH 7.5). Do all steps at 0-4°C.
Preparations made in phosphate buffer were less infective than those made in
borate buffer (Tomlinson, 1963), probably because of virus aggregation as
found by Shepherd & Pound (1960).
Properties of Particles
No accessory viral components are found by analytical ultra-centrifugation.
In borate buffer the virus sediments as a single component but in phosphate
buffer it produces two peaks, the faster consisting of aggregated virus (Shepherd
& Pound, 1960
The virus consists of flexuous filamentous particles (Fig.3
). The mean
particle length is variously estimated as 680 nm (Shepherd & Pound, 1960
722 nm (Tomlinson & Walkey, 1967
), and 754 nm (Bode & Brandes, 1958
Relations with Cells and Tissues
With the light microscope Stefanac & Milicic (1965)
types of cellular inclusions with three virus strains. In ultra-thin sections
of infected Brassica perviridis,
virus particles were associated with
intracellular fibrous masses and band structures (Kamei, Honda & Matsui,
Symptoms of turnip mosaic virus infection in cabbage and cauliflower are
sometimes confused with those caused by cauliflower mosaic virus
mosaic virus can usually be recognized by producing, initially, vein clearing
of the youngest leaves, followed by dark green vein banding and necrotic
spotting (Broadbent, 1957
). Most strains of turnip mosaic virus infect many
non-cruciferous species such as Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor
and C. quinoa,
which are not susceptible to cauliflower mosaic virus.
- Bode & Brandes, Phytopath. Z. 34: 103, 1958.
- Broadbent, Investigation of virus diseases of Brassica crops, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1957.
- Gardner & Kendrick, J. agric. Res. 22: 123, 1921.
- Hollings, Ann. appl. Biol. 45: 44, 1957.
- Kamei, Honda & Matsui, Phytopathology 59: 139, 1969.
- Kennedy, Day & Eastop, A conspectus of aphids as vectors of plant viruses, London, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 1962.
- Larson & Walker, J. agric. Res. 62: 475, 1941.
- Larson, Matthews & Walker, Phytopathology 40: 955, 1950.
- McClean & Cowin, Sci. Bull. Dep. Agric. S. Afr., 332, 30 pp, 1953.
- Niblett, Paulus & Semancik, Phytopathology 59: 1166, 1969.
- Pound & Walker, J. agric. Res. 71: 255, 1945.
- Schultz, J. agric. Res. 22: 173, 1921.
- Shepherd & Pound, Phytopathology 50: 797, 1960.
- Stefanac & Milicic, Phytopath. Z. 52: 349, 1965.
- Sylvester, Phytopathology 43: 541, 1953.
- Sylvester, Hilgardia 23: 53, 1954.
- Tomlinson, Nature, Lond. 200: 93, 1963.
- Tomlinson, Ann. appl. Biol. 53: 95, 1964.
- Tomlinson, Walkey, Hughes & Watson, Nature, Lond. 207: 495, 1965.
- Tomlinson & Walkey, Virology 32: 267, 1967.
- Tompkins, J. agric. Res. 58: 63, 1939.
- Tompkins, Gardener & Thomas, J. agric. Res. 57: 929, 1938.
- Zink & Duffus, J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 94: 403, 1969.
Young systemic infection of Brassica rapa (turnip) showing vein
Systemic mosaic symptom in Brassica rapa (turnip) six weeks
Virus particles from a purified preparation in phosphotungstate. Bar
represents 200 nm.
Systemic black ringspot symptoms in Brassica oleracea var.
Local lesions in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley.
Flower 'break' symptom in Matthiola incana (stock).
Inoculated leaf of Chenopodium amaranticolor, showing local
Inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa, showing local lesions.