Sugarcane mosaic virus
T. P. Pirone
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
- Grass mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 2: 584)
- Marmor sacchari (Rev. appl. Mycol. 28: 514)
- Saccharum virus 1 (Rev. appl. Mycol. 17: 52)
Serologically related viruses include:
- Maize dwarf mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 44, 3333)
- Abaca mosaic virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 42: 687)
- Sorghum red stripe virus (Rev. app1. Mycol. 37: 232)
- Maize mosaic virus (Rev. app1. Mycol. 42: I5)
A virus with filamentous flexuous particles about 750 nm long. It infects numerous
species in the
Gramineae, is transmitted in the non-persistent manner by aphids and is
transmissible by sap inoculation.
Causes mosaic diseases in sugarcane, maize, sorghum and other graminaceous plants.
Occurs in many parts of the world where susceptible species are grown.
Host Range and Symptomatology
Host range is restricted to members of the Gramineae. Strains of the virus have been
shown to infect,
in addition to sugarcane, varieties of such cultivated crops as maize, sorghum and
(Brandes & Klaphaak, 1923
wheat, barley, rye and rice
(Abbott & Tippett, 1964
as well as numerous other
cultivated and wild grasses.
- Saccharum spp. (sugarcane). Mosaic and/or striping depending on cultivar
and virus strain
- Zea mays (maize). Seedlings of most varieties of sweet corn are readily
infected with the
various strains. A mosaic symptom is produced.
- Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). Sart and several other varieties are
readily infected with most
strains. Mosaic symptoms are produced initially; some strains later cause necrosis
and associated leaf
- Sorghum bicolor cvs. Sart and Rio are good sources for maintenance and
purification of most
strains. Zea mays (sweet corn cultivars) yields less virus but is
preferable for strains which
cause necrosis in sorghum
- Strain E of the virus produces necrotic local lesions in Sorghum bicolor cv.
Other sorghum varieties such as Sart are good systemic assay hosts.
The following are serologically related and are considered by some to be
strains of sugarcane mosaic
virus (see Relationships):
Sugarcane mosaic strains
Cause mosaic in sugarcane. Rarely, if ever, infect Johnson grass
(Sorghum halepense). Strains A, B, D, E and F may be differentiated on
sugarcane variety C.P.31-294, strain C on Co.281, and strains A and H on C.P.31-588
(Abbott & Tippett, 1966).
Strain I may be differentiated on Rio sorghum
(Tippett & Abbott, 1968).
Other isolates that differ from the strains described from the USA
have been obtained from sugarcane in other parts of the world
(Abbott & Stokes, 1966).
Maize dwarf mosaic
(Williams & Alexander, 1965).
and, occasionally, reddening and dwarfing in maize. Strain A infects Johnson grass
but less readily infects sugarcane, in which it causes slight symptoms or none
(Dale & Anzalone, 1965;
Strain B does not infect Johnson grass or the sugarcane varieties C.P.31-294 and C.P.31-588
(Snazelle, Bancroft & Ullstrup, 1971).
Sorghum red stripe
Causes mosaic, followed by red striping
and necrosis in sorghum. The virus also infects maize and Johnson grass
European maize mosaic
Has properties similar to maize dwarf mosaic strain A
(Tosic & Simova, 1967).
Abaca mosaic virus
(Eloja & Tinsley, 1963).
Causes a mosaic in abaca (Musa textilis).
Its host range includes monocotyledons outside the Gramineae
(Eloja & Tinsley, 1963).
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted by Dactynotus ambrosiae, Hysteroneura setariae, Rhopalosiphum maidis,
and a number of other aphid species in the non-persistent manner
(Kennedy, Day & Eastop, 1962
The virus is more readily transmitted to or from hosts such as maize and sorghum than
to or from sugarcane.
Transmission through Seed
Not reported for the true sugarcane mosaic strains. Transmission of the maize
dwarf mosaic strain
in maize seed has been reported
(Shepherd & Holdeman, 1965
Transmission by Dodder
Numerous antisera have been prepared; the titres are usually about 1/256.
They give flagellar
type precipitates in tests with intact virus in liquid. Immunodiffusion tests
may be done in agar
gels using purified virus treated with ethanolamine at pH 10.5 as antigen
(Bond & Pirone, 1971
Sugarcane mosaic virus belongs to the
potato virus Y
group and may be distantly related to
several other viruses in this group
(Brandes & Bercks, 1965
Maize dwarf mosaic virus, strains A and B, are serologically related to each other
(Gordon & Williams, 1970;
Snazelle et al., 1971),
sugarcane mosaic virus strains
Wagner & Dale, 1966;
Gordon & Williams, 1970;
Bond & Pirone, 1971;
Snazelle et al., 1971).
Viruses isolated from sorghum in South Africa were closely serologically related to
(Von Wechmar & Hahn, 1967).
Viruses from maize and Johnson grass in Australia were distantly
related to sugarcane mosaic
(Taylor & Pares, 1968).
Particles of the viruses from South Africa and
Australia had greater modal lengths than the sugarcane mosaic isolates used for
Sorghum red stripe
abaca mosaic viruses are also serologically related to sugarcane mosaic virus
(Dijkstra & Grancini, 1960;
Eloja & Tinsley, 1963).
Stability in Sap
In sorghum sap, the thermal inactivation point is about 56°C;
dilution end-point is
, depending on the strain. Longevity
is 1-2 days at
20°C. Similar values have been obtained for the maize dwarf mosaic virus isolates
(Williams & Alexander, 1965
PurificationBond & Pirone (1971)
This procedure may be used for sugarcane mosaic virus strains and also
for maize mosaic virus, strain A. Homogenize each 300 g of minced tissue in
300 ml water containing
0.3% ascorbic acid, 0.01 M sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and 0.3% 2-mercaptoethanol.
Use each 300 ml
of extracting fluid to extract three successive 100 g amounts of leaf material,
removing the pulp and
retaining the liquid each time. Strain through cheesecloth and homogenize the
filtrate with an equal
volume of chloroform. Centrifuge at low speed and then at high speed, resuspend the
high speed pellets
in 0.1 M borate, 0.01 M EDTA, pH 8.2. The pellets should be pooled and resuspended in a
because over 90% of the infectivity is lost if a second high speed centrifugation is done.
second low speed centrifugation, float the supernatant fluid on 10-40% sucrose gradients
in 0.1 M
borate, 0.01 M EDTA, pH 8.2, and centrifuge for 2 h at 90,000 g
The virus forms a
single light-scattering zone.
A very similar procedure, in which the sucrose for density gradients was dissolved
in 0.01 M sodium
citrate, was used for purifying maize dwarf mosaic virus strains A and B as well as
(Snazelle et al., 1971).
Preparations may be further purified by zone electrophoresis in sucrose gradients
(Von Wechmar & Hahn, 1967)
or by equilibrium centrifugation in sucrose gradients
Properties of Particles
A sedimentation coefficient of 176±5 S has been calculated for strain B of sugarcane
mosaic virus; the buoyant density in CsCl for strain D is 1.3327
(Tosic & Ford, 1972
Sedimentation coefficients (svedbergs) of 168±6
(Bancroft et al., 1966),
(Jones & Tolin, l972),
buoyant density in CsCl of 1.3245
(Sehgal & Jean, 1970)
have been reported for maize dwarf
Particles are flexuous filaments about 750 nm long and 13 nm in diameter
Relations with Cells and Tissues
These are similar in maize infected with sugarcane mosaic virus strain
H or with maize dwarf mosaic virus strains A or B. Pinwheel inclusions are
found in systemically
Membrane bound micro-inclusion bodies occur between the plasmalemma and cell wall.
may be swollen
(Krass & Ford, 1969
There is a high degree of correlation between the presence of maize dwarf mosaic virus
in maize fields and the presence of Johnson grass, a perennating source of the virus.
aspects of maize dwarf mosaic virus strain B are not well understood, because no
has been found. There is still some confusion about the severity of symptoms caused in
maize in USA by maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A. Johnson grass is also a source of
the causal agent
of corn stunt, and double infections by this and maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A
occur. Maize grown adjacent to sugarcane may become infected with sugarcane
mosaic virus strains,
but is seldom severely damaged.
- Abbott & Stokes, Sug. Azúc 61: 27, 1966.
- Abbott & Tippett, Pl. Dis. Reptr 48: 443, 1964.
- Abbott & Tippett, Tech. Bull. U.S. Dep. Agric. 1340, 25 pp., 1966.
- Bancroft, Ullstrup, Messieha, Bracker & Snazelle, Phytopathology 56: 474, 1966.
- Bond & Pirone, Phytopath. Z. 71: 56, 1971.
- Brandes, Tech. Bull. U.S. Dep. Agric. 829, 26 pp., 1919.
- Brandes & Bercks, Adv. Virus Res. 11: 1, 1965.
- Brandes & Klaphaak, J. agric. Res. 24: 247, 1923.
- Dale & Anzalone, Pl. Dis. Reptr 49: 757, 1965.
- Dean, Phytopathology 60: 569, 1970.
- Dijkstra & Grancini, Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 66: 295, 1960.
- Eloja & Tinsley, Ann. appl. Biol. 51: 253, 1963.
- Gillaspie, Pl. Dis. Reptr 51: 761, 1967.
- Gillaspie, Proc. Int. Soc. Sug. Cane Technol. (in press), 1971.
- Gordon & Williams, Phytopathology 60: 1293, 1970.
- Grancini, Maidica 2: 83, 1957.
- Jones & Tolin, Phytopathology 62: (in press), 1972.
- Kennedy, Day & Eastop, A conspectus of aphids as vectors of plant viruses, London, Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, 1962.
- Krass & Ford, Phytopathology 59: 431, 1969.
- Lovisolo, Boll. Staz. Patol. veg. Roma (1956): 14: 261, 1957.
- Panjan, Zast. Bilja 62: 3, 1960.
- Sehgal, Phytopath. Z. 62: 232, 1968.
- Sehgal & Jean, Phytopathology 60: 189, 1970.
- Shepherd, Phytopathology 55: 1250, 1965.
- Shepherd & Holdeman, Pl. Dis. Reptr 49: 468, 1965.
- Snazelle, Bancroft & Ullstrup, Phytopathology 61: 1059, 1971.
- Taylor & Pares, Aust. J. agric. Res. 19: 767, 1968.
- Tippett & Abbott, Pl. Dis. Reptr 52: 449, 1968.
- Tosic & Ford, Phytopathology 62 (in press), 1972.
- Tosic & Simova, Arch. poljopr. Nauke Teh. 20: 92, 1967.
- Von Wechmar & Hahn, S. Afr. J. agric. Sci. 10: 241, 1967.
- Wagner & Dale, Phytopathology 56: 1422, 1966.
- Williams & Alexander, Phytopathology 55: 802, 1965.
Sugarcane variety C.P.31-294 systemically infected by sugarcane
mosaic virus strain B.
(Courtesy A. G. Gillaspie.)
Sugarcane variety C.P.31-294 systemically infected by sugarcane mosaic virus strain D.
(Courtesy A. G. Gillaspie.)
Systemic symptoms produced by maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A in Johnson grass.
Systemic symptoms produced by maize dwarf mosaic virus strain A in maize.
R. E. Ford.)
Filamentous particles of sugarcane mosaic virus strain H mounted in
Bar represents 200 nm.
Systemic necrosis produced by sugarcane mosaic virus strain A in sorghum.
Local necrotic lesions produced in Atlas sorghum by sugarcane mosaic
virus strain E.
(Courtesy J. L. Dean.)