Peanut stunt virus
G. I. Mink
Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Prosser, Washington 99350, USA
Described by Troutman (1966a,
Silbernagel, Mink & Saksena (1966).
- Groundnut stunt virus (Rev. appl. Mycol. 47: 2420)
An RNA-containing virus with isometric particles about 30 nm in diameter. It has a wide host range,
is transmitted by aphids in the non-persistent manner and is readily transmissible by inoculation of
sap. Found in USA and Japan.
Causes pronounced stunting of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea
) and malformation of the fruit
epinasty, leaf distortion and stunt of beans
(Echandi & Hebert, 1971
Mink, Silbernagel & Saksena, 1969
chlorotic mottle and stunt of Burley tobacco
and systemic mottle of several clovers
(Choopanya & Halpin, 1968
). Naturally infected white clover
) may be the overwintering source of the virus in North Carolina
Economically important in North Carolina and Virginia, USA. Also reported to occur in the states
of Georgia (Kuhn, 1971
) and Washington
(Silbernagel et al., 1966
), and in Japan (T. Tsuchizaki,
Host Range and Symptomatology
Transmissible by inoculation of sap to many dicotyledonous species. Many leguminous plants are
susceptible, including all varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris
(Zaumeyer & Goth, 1967
One or more species of Chenopodiaceae, Compositae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae are also susceptible.
- Vigna sinensis (cowpea). Chlorotic lesions on primary leaves 4-5 days after inoculation
(Fig.3); severe epinasty and vein-clearing of trifoliolate leaves 2-3 days later.
- Phaseolus vulgaris (French bean). Symptoms depend on the variety; lesions on inoculated
primary leaves may be chlorotic or necrotic; systemically infected trifoliolate leaves develop
chlorotic mottle or mosaic. The variety Bountiful is a useful indicator, producing elongated and
mis-shapen trifoliolate leaves (Fig.1).
- Datura stramonium (jimson weed). Systemic chlorotic mottle with islands of green
- Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Strap-like malformation of leaflets producing a
fernleaf effect similar to that caused by infection with
cucumber mosaic or
tomato aspermy viruses
- Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Chlorotic local lesions with no systemic
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Light green to yellow rings 5-10 mm in diameter with broad
margins on the inoculated leaves followed by chlorotic areas in the younger leaves.
- Vigna sinensis is useful both for maintaining cultures and as a source of virus for
- Vigna sinensis, Phaseolus vulgaris, Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa are
useful local lesion hosts.
Minor variants, differing in one or more host reactions, can be distinguished. Two major
strains have been reported
(Mink, Hebert & Silbernagel, 1967
which differ in host range, serological relationships and particle stability:
Eastern strain. Found in southeastern USA. Produces necrotic primary lesions, systemic
necrotic rings and veinal necrosis in Tennessee Greenpod bean, and mosaic without necrosis in
Perfected Wales pea.
Western strain. Found in Washington State, USA. Produces mosaic without necrosis in
Tennessee Greenpod bean, and mosaic with severe necrosis of stems and petioles in Perfected Wales
Transmission by Vectors
Transmitted in the non-persistent manner by the aphids Aphis craccivora, A. spiraecola
but not by A. gossypii
). Virus can be acquired in less than
1 min and inoculated in less than 1 min. No latent period. Not transmitted to progeny aphids. Some
isolates lose their aphid-transmissibility after serial transfer by inoculation of sap; one such isolate
apparently regained aphid-transmissibility (S. Tolin, unpublished).
Transmission through Seed
Transmitted through 0.1% or less of the seed from infected peanut plants
(Troutman, Bailey & Thomas, 1967
Because seedlings from infected seed emerge late and grow poorly, seed
transmission is not considered an important factor in disease spread.
Transmission by Dodder
Transmitted by an unidentified species of dodder
(Miller & Troutman, 1966
The virus is not strongly immunogenic in rabbits. Ionic conditions appear to affect particle
stability before and after injection, but this has not been adequately studied. Both ring interface
and gel-diffusion tests can be used. Virus in crude sap can be detected by gel-diffusion tests; the
Eastern strain produces a single curved band near the antigen well, whereas the Western strain
produces a curved band near the antigen well and one or more straight bands nearer the antiserum
well. The number, intensity and location of bands produced in gel-diffusion plates by purified virus,
especially the Western strain, is dependent upon the previous treatment of the sample and on the
antiserum used (Mink et al., 1969
Many isolates from southeastern USA are serologically identical
(Echandi & Hebert, 1971
but one differs slightly serologically from the others (S. A. Tolin,
unpublished). Isolates from Washington State differ greatly from those from southeastern USA
(Mink et al., 1967
The physical and chemical properties of peanut stunt virus suggest affinities with
or tomato aspermy viruses,
and peanut stunt virus is in fact related serologically to some strains
of both viruses. However, strains of all three viruses differ serologically among themselves, and the
degree of apparent relationship therefore depends upon the particular strain of each virus and the
particular antiserum used. In gel-diffusion tests, both strains of peanut stunt virus react with some
antisera to tomato aspermy virus, giving reactions of partial identity. However, only one of these
antisera, prepared against the isolate of
Blencowe & Caldwell (1949), gave reactions suggesting
a direct serological relationship between peanut stunt virus and cucumber mosaic virus. Some antisera
to cucumber mosaic virus possess type-specific antibodies to one or both strains of peanut stunt
virus, but no antibodies that react both with the homologous virus and with peanut stunt virus
Antiserum against the Western strain of peanut stunt virus does not react with cucumber mosaic virus
antigens. Antiserum against the Eastern strain reacted only with a low molecular weight antigen
associated with the cowpea strain of cucumber mosaic virus in gel-diffusion plates
however, J. W. Groelke & S. A. Tolin (pers. comm.) obtained reciprocal heterologous reactions
between the Eastern strain of peanut stunt virus and cucumber mosaic virus using a modification of
the test described by
Ball & Brakke (1969)
in which antigen-antibody reaction products were detected by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients.
Stability in Sap
Infectivity is lost after 4-24 h at room temperature depending upon the source plant used.
Addition of antioxidants or reducing agents preserves infectivity for several days. Thermal inactivation
occurs after 10 min at 50-60°C, the exact temperature depending upon the strain tested. Dilution
end-point is between 10-3
Harvest primary leaves of Vigna sinensis
7-8 days after inoculation. Purify by
chloroform-butanol method followed by differential ultracentrifugation. An unidentified yellow pigment
is removed by rate zonal sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. Yield and specific infectivity are
very dependent on the virus strain, the clarification procedure and the ionic conditions of the
(Mink et al., 1969
Properties of Particles
Sedimentation coefficient, s20, w
: about 98 S.
Molecular weight: about 6.8 x 106 daltons.
Absorbance at 260 nm (1 mg/ml, 1 cm light path): 4.8.
A260/A280: 1.64 before dialysis, 1.58 after dialysis against cold 0.01 M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0.
The particles are isometric, about 30 nm in diameter
). The particles are penetrated by
phosphotungstate and contrast poorly.
Molecular weight about 1 x 106
, about 16% of the particle weight, probably
single-stranded. Molar percentages of nucleotides: G24, A26, C21, U29. Sedimentation coefficient of
RNA is about 23 S when calculated with reference to whole virus in sucrose density-gradients
containing 0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 8.0. Infectious RNA is readily obtained from the Western strain
but not from the Eastern strain by freezing purified virus in 2 M LiCl.
Protein: Amino acid composition (moles %): ala 7.2; arg 6.6; asx 8.7; cys 1.0; glu 7.9;
gly 5.7; his 3.0; ile 3.3; leu 8.4; lys 6.6; met 0; phe 3.0; pro 7.4; ser 10.2; thr 8.2; trp 7.0;
tyr 3.0; val 9.3 (J. H. Tremaine, unpublished).
Other components: None reported.
Relations with Cells and Tissues
In physical and chemical properties peanut stunt virus clearly belongs to the same group as
cucumber mosaic virus
tomato aspermy virus
the aspermy-related viruses from chrysanthemum and, possibly,
robinia mosaic virus
although the particle size of robinia mosaic virus seems larger than that of other members
of this group
The characteristics of strains and viruses in this group overlap to
such an extent that no single property is sufficiently reliable for identification. Peanut stunt virus
strains show various degrees of serological relationship with strains of tomato aspermy virus and
cucumber mosaic virus but they do not fit the scheme proposed by
to distinguish aspermy
viruses from cucumber mosaic virus strains. Unlike tomato aspermy virus, peanut stunt virus strains
systemically infect cucumber, French bean and Datura stramonium
and do not cause enations on
leaves of Nicotiana
species. Peanut stunt virus can be differentiated from cucumber mosaic virus
by the systemic reactions it produces in cowpea, French bean and peanut, and from robinia mosaic virus
by systemic infection of Petunia hybrida.
Serological tests, particularly gel-diffusion tests,
may give confusing or misleading results on inter-relationships in this group due to qualitative
differences among different antisera prepared to a given virus and to the presence of antibodies
apparently specific to peanut stunt virus, but not to tomato aspermy virus, in many antisera to
cucumber mosaic virus (Mink, 1969
- Ball & Brakke, Virology 39: 746, 1969.
- Blencowe & Caldwell, Ann. appl. Biol. 36: 320, 1949.
- Choopanya & Halpin, Phytopathology 58: 726, 1968.
- Echandi & Hebert, Phytopathology 61: 328, 1971.
- Gooding, Phytopathology 58: 728, 1968.
- Hebert, Phytopathology 57: 461, 1967.
- Kuhn, Phytopathology 59: 1513, 1969.
- Kuhn, Pl. Dis. Reptr 55: 453, 1971.
- Lawson, Virology 32: 357, 1967.
- Miller & Troutman, Pl. Dis. Reptr 50: 139, 1966.
- Mink, Phytopathology 59: 1889, 1969.
- Mink, Hebert & Silbernagel, Phytopathology 57: 1400, 1967.
- Mink, Silbernagel & Saksena, Phytopathology 59: 1625, 1969.
- Schmelzer, Phytopath. Z. 58: 59, 1967.
- Silbernagel, Mink & Saksena, Phytopathalogy 56: 901, 1966.
- Tolin, Phytopathology 57: 834, 1967.
- Tolin, Phytopathology 59: 1560, 1969.
- Troutman, Phytopathology 56: 587, 1966a.
- Troutman, Phytopathology 56: 904, 1966b.
- Troutman, Bailey & Thomas, Phytopathology 57: 1280, 1967.
- Zaumeyer & Goth, Phytopathology 57: 837, 1967.
Systemically infected trifoliolate leaf of Bountiful bean.
Systemically infected leaf of Bonny Best tomato.
Chlorotic lesions on inoculated primary leaves of cowpea.
Systemically infected leaf of Datura stramonium.
Virus particles from a purified preparation stained with 1% uranyl acetate. Bar represents
100 nm. (Courtesy S. A. Tolin.)